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Cuvier, 1797

Classification of the class Cephalopoda at the supra-generic level is as unstable as that of most other classes of invertebrates. For non-specialists in cephalopod molluscs it is reasonable to compromise between traditional systems as presented in university textbooks (mostly outdated), and modern improvements and amendments not yet adopted universally. I use the system of Cephalopoda described in my previous books (Nesis, 1982, Nesis, 1985, Nesis, 1987), which basically coincides with the one used in many other manuals and textbooks (Clarke, 1996; Clarke and Trueman, 1988; Guerra Sierra, 1992; Mangold, 1989; Roper, 1983; Roper et al., 1984; Sweeney et al., 1992; and others). A critical (skeptical) analysis of the improvements and new tendencies in cephalopod systematics, primarily elevating the rank of some taxa one level (subfamily to family, family to suborder/order, etc.) was published by Nesis in 1996.
The class Cephalopoda includes two recent subclasses: Subclass Nautiloidea (monotypic for Nautilus, having no pelagic stage and absent from the Atlantic), and Coleoidea (all other modern cephalopods) and the Subclass Coleoidea, including four orders:
1) Sepiida (cuttlefish), divided by some authors into two or three orders, with two suborders: Spirulina (monotypic for Spirula spirula), and Sepiina (with 4 families);
2) Teuthida (squids) also with two suborders: Myopsida (neritic squids, one or two families), and Oegopsida (oceanic squids), 23 to 26 families, depending on the author;
3) Vampyromorpha (monotypic for Vampyroteuthis infernalis)
4) Octopoda (octopuses), with two suborders: Cirrata (with 3 families), and Incirrata (with 3 superfamilies and 8 families).

The following outline summarizes the classification system adopted herein. Families and subfamilies treated in this review are underlined.

Outline classification
Class Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1797
Subclass Coleoidea Bather, 1888
Suborder Spirulina Stolley, 1919
Family Spirulidae Owen, 1836
Suborder Sepiina Naef, 1916
Family Sepiidae Keferstein, 1866
Family Sepiolidae Leach, 1817
Subfamily Rossiinae Appellöf, 1898
Subfamily Sepiolinae Leach, 1817
Subfamily Heteroteuthinae Appellöf, 1898
Family Sepiadariidae Naef, 1912
Family Idiosepiidae Appellöf, 1898
Order Teuthida Naef, 1916
Suborder Myopsida d'Orbigny, 1845
Family Loliginidae Steenstrup, 1861 (including Pickfordiateuthidae Voss, 1953;
subfamilies not listed)
Suborder Oegopsida d'Orbigny, 1845
Family Lycoteuthiade Pfeffer, 1908
Subfamily Lycoteuthinae Pfeffer, 1908
Subfamily Lampadioteuthinae Berry, 1916
Family Enoploteuthidae Pfeffer, 1900, s.l.
Subfamily Enoploteuthinae Pfeffer, 1900
Subfamily Ancistrocheirinae Pfeffer, 1912
Subfamily Pyroteuthinae Pfeffer, 1912
Family Octopoteuthidae Berry, 1912
Family Onychoteuthidae Gray, 1849
Family Walvisteuthidae Nesis and Nikitina, 1986
Family Gonatidae Hoyle, 1886
Family Chtenopterygidae Grimpe, 1922
Family Bathyteuthidae Pfeffer, 1900
Family Histioteuthidae Verrill, 1881
Family Psychroteuthidae Thiele, 1921
Family Architeuthidae Pfeffer, 1900
Family Neoteuthidae Naef, 1921
Family Brachioteuthidae Pfeffer, 1908
Family Ommastrephidae Steenstrup, 1857
Subfamily Illicinae Pfeffer, 1912
Subfamily Todaropsinae Nigmatullin, 1988, Ms
Subfamily Todarodinae Pfeffer, 1912
Subfamily Ornithoteuthinae Nigmatullin, 1979
Subfamily Ommastrephinae Pfeffer, 1912
Family Thysanoteuthidae Keferstein, 1866
Family Pholidoteuthidae Adam, 1950
Family Lepidoteuthidae Naef, 1912
Family Batoteuthidae Young and Roper, 1968
Family Cycloteuthidae Naef, 1923
Family Chiroteuthidae Gray, 1849 (including Grimalditeuthidae Pfeffer, 1900)
Family Mastigoteuthidae Verrill, 1881
Family Joubiniteuthidae Naef, 1922
Family Promachoteuthidae Naef, 1912
Family Cranchiidae Prosch, 1849
Subfamily Cranchiinae Pfeffer, 1912
Subfamily Taoniinae Pfeffer, 1912
Order Vampyromorpha Pickford, 1939
Family Vampyroteuthidae Thiele, 1915
Order Octopoda Leach, 1818
Suborder Cirrata Grimpe, 1916
Family Cirroteuthidae Keferstein, 1866
Family Stauroteuthidae Grimpe, 1916
Family Opisthoteuthidae Verrill, 1896
Suborder Incirrata Grimpe, 1916
Superfamily Bolitaenoidea Chun, 1911
Family Bolitaenidae Chun, 1911
Family Amphitretidae Hoyle, 1886 (including Idioctopodidae Taki, 1962)
Superfamily Octopodoidea d'Orbigny, 1845
Family Octopodidae d'Orbigny, 1845
Subfamily Octopodinae d'Orbigny, 1845
Subfamily Eledoninae Grimpe, 1921
Subfamily Bathypolypodinae Robson, 1932
Subfamily Graneledoninae Voss, 1988
Family Vitreledonellidae Robson, 1932
Superfamily Argonautoidea Naef, 1912
Family Alloposidae Verrill, 1882
Family Ocythoidae Gray, 1849
Family Tremoctopodidae Brock, 1882
Family Argonautidae Naef, 1912

Class Cephalopoda