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d’ Orbigny, 1826

See also page Fo. 1 Introduction about Foraminifera. Below the classification to generic level of the Foraminifera. Note that the authors of this chapter by using the Phylum Sarcomastigophora instead of Granuloreticulosa have adopted an older system for the higher taxonomic levels of the Foraminifera than Margulis and Schwartz (2002) did. See also Kingdom Protoctista and Phylum Granuloreticulosa, which holds the Order Foraminifera according to the latter authors. Furthermore, note that the lower taxonomic levels of the Foraminifera are not described in this chapter.

Kingdom Protoctista Hogg, 1861
Phylum Sarcomastigophora Honigberg and Balamuth, 1963
Subphylum Sarcodina Schmarda, 1871
Superclass Rhizopoda von Siebold, 1845
Class Granuloreticulosea de Saedeleer, 1934
Order Foraminifera d’ Orbigny, 1826
Superfamily Globigerinacea Carpenter, Parker and Jones, 1862 (bilamellar, spinose and normal perforate)
Genus Globigerina
Genus Globigerinella,
Genus Globigerinoides
Genus Globoturborotalita
Genus Orbulin
Genus Sphaeroidinella
Genus Turborotalita
Superfamily Hastigerinacea Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan, 1957 (monolamellar, spinose and normal perforate)
Genus Hastigerina
Genus Orcadia
Superfamily Globorotaliacea Cushman, 1927 (non-spinose and normal perforate)
Genus Dentagloborotalia
Genus Globorotalia
Genus Neogloboquadrina
Genus Pulleniatina
Superfamily Heterohelicea Cushman, 1927 (non-spinose and microperforate)
Genus Candeina
Genus Globigerinita
Genus Tenuitella


Spinose species
Globigerina bulloides d´Orbigny, 1826
Globigerina falconensis Blow, 1959
Globigerinella calida (Parker, 1962)
Globigerinella siphonifera (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Globigerinoides conglobatus (Brady, 1879)
Globigerinoides ruber (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Globigerinoides sacculifer (Brady, 1877)
Globoturborotalita rubescens (Hofker, 1956)
Globoturborotalita tenella (Parker, 1958)
Hastigerina digitata Rhumbler, 1911
Hastigerina pelagica (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Orbulina universa d´Orbigny, 1839
Orcadia riedeli (Rögl and Bolli, 1973)
Sphaeroidinella dehiscens (Parker and Jones, 1865)
Turborotalita clarkei (Rögl and Bolli, 1973)
Turborotalita humilis (Brady, 1884)
Turborotalita quinqueloba (Natland, 1938)

Non-spinose species
Dentagloborotalia anfracta (Parker, 1967)
Globorotalia crassaformis (Galloway and Wissler, 1927)
Globorotalia hirsuta (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Globorotalia inflata (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Globorotalia menardii (Jones and Brady, 1865)
Globorotalia scitula (Brady, 1882)
Globorotalia truncatulinoides (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Globorotalia tumida (Brady, 1877)
Globorotalia ungulata Bermudez, 1960
Neogloboquadrina dutertrei (d´Orbigny, 1839)
Neogloboquadrina incompta (Cifelli, 1961) (= right coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma)
Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left coiling) (Ehrenberg, 1861)
Pulleniatina obliquiloculata (Parker and Jones, 1865)

—Microperforate species
Candeina nitida d´Orbigny 1839
Globigerinita glutinata (Egger, 1893)
Globigerinita uvula (Ehrenberg, 1861)
Tenuitella iota (Parker, 1962)
Tenuitella parkerae (Brönnimann and Resig, 1971)


In his 1981 review of the identification and distribution of planktic foraminifers from the Southwestern Atlantic, in addition to the above, E. Boltovskoy (1981b) included the following species: Globigerina megastoma Earland, Globigerinella adamsi (Banner and Blow), Globigerinoides elongatus (d’ Orbigny), Globoquadrina conglomerata (Schwager), Globorotalia cavernula Bé, Globorotalia pumilio Parker, and Globoquadrina hexagona Natland. However, although E. Boltovskoy (1981b) included them in his work in anticipation of future potential records in this area, most of these have still been only recorded in the Indo-Pacific (some became extinct in the Atlantic during the Pleistocene, like Globoquadrina conglomerata, Globoquadrina hexagona), for which reason they are not included here. Also two serial (bi- and tri-serial) planktic Foraminifera: Gallitellia vivans and Streptochilus globulosus present elsewhere (Indian Ocean, Pacific and North Atlantic) have not yet been recorded from the South Atlantic. Their small size may allow them to pass through meshes over 100 µm. In any case, both species invariably occur in very low numbers (below 1% of the total standing crop).

Detailed descriptions of these species can be found in Loeblich and Tappan (1988), and in Saito et al. (1981). E. Boltovskoy (1981b) provides good sketches and a few SEM micrographs of most species that occur in the area.

Class Foraminifera