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Cuvier, 1797

Hatchlings 1.5-2.0 mm ML. Mantle elongate, conical, head wide, eyes protruding. Arms short, subequal, with tapering tips. Three primary suckers on each arm, then suckers abruptly becoming much smaller, rearranged into 2 rows. Outer surface of arms with 2 dark chromatophores in one row. Dorsal mantle surface clear in mid-region, with 2 small chromatophores in posterior part, ventral surface with 12-18 scattered large chromatophores, funnel with 2+2, dorsal head with 8-10 (2+4+4), ventral head with 2, later 4, one small over each eye, blue-green iridophores around eyes. Digestive gland with 6-8 large dorsal visceral chromatophores. Large larvae ready to settle on bottom at 7.5-11, usually 8-10 mm ML, settling normally at the age of 7-8 weeks. Arms subequal, somewhat longer than ML, with approx. 25-30 suckers. Outer surface with 20-30 chromatophores in 1 row proximally and 2 rows distally. Dorsal mantle in mid-region clear, ventral mantle with 25-30 chromatophores, dorsal and ventral head and funnel as in hatchlings. Web vestigial. Eight-10 gill lamellae per demibranch. Egg length 1.8-2.5 mm.

Predominantly on inner shelf, but also on outer shelf and uppermost bathyal. Very common and commercially important. A very close species dwells in waters off Japan, China and Korea.

Octopus vulgaris