Home|Search|Identify|Taxonomic tree|Quiz|About this site|Feedback
Developed by ETI BioInformatics
Characteristics, distribution and ecology
Taxonomische classification
Synonyms and common names
Literature references
Images, audio and video
Distribution map
Links to other Web sites

(LeSueur, 1821)

Mantle thin, membranous in larvae and juveniles, leathery in adults, cylindrical in anterior and conical in posterior half in larvae and juveniles, spindle-shaped in adults, posteriorly drawn into long, thin, acute tail. Mantle not narrowed in front of anterior fin margin. No cartilaginous tubercles at sites of mantle-to-funnel fusion. Head small, short and narrow, in larvae with short "snout" (arm-crown pillar). Eyes in larvae on long, in juveniles on short stalks, in adults not stalked, globular. Fins in larvae (<18 mm) diamond-shaped, in juveniles and adults long (30-40% ML at ML >4-5 cm) and narrow, oval, stretched along mantle sides, not extending beyond end of lanceola. Arms short in larvae, long and strong in adults, with 2 rows of suckers, 3rd arms longest. Width of arm protective membranes approx. equals sucker diameter. Large suckers in adults with broad blunt teeth. Tentacles long and thin in larvae, rather short and strong in adults, with thick stalks, not autotomized. Fixing apparatus: an oval carpal group of knobs and suckers, and 2 rows of alternating knobs and suckers on distal 2/3 of stem. Four rows of stalked suckers on club, central much larger than marginal; their rings (beginning from ML approx. 5-6 cm) transformed into hooks with 2 (rarely one) large teeth, without small side-hooks; base of ring not widened, ring opening not reduced, hook not covered by skin hood. Funnel moderately long. Medial component of funnel organ with three conical papillae. No funnel valve.
Two eyeball photophores, one small rod- or crescent-shaped, one large semilunar. No arm photophores in mature females. Ends of 1st-3rd arms modified in males, with 2 rows of abruptly reduced suckers.
Larvae clear, semitransparent, adults purple-violet. Epithelium easily abraded, exposing a reticulate subcuticular pattern. ML up to 54 cm. Larvae distinguished by very thin mantle, long narrow fin, long eyestalks.

Three species, 2 in the South Atlantic.

Taonius pavo