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(Ehrenberg, 1861)

Non-spinose, usually with 4 chambers in last whorl, general outline almost square. Aperture very narrow, surface usually covered by heavy calcite crust.

Ref.: Bandy (1959), Bandy and Theyer (1971), Malmgren and Kennett (1972), Vella (1974), Vilks (1975), Olsson (1976), Thompson and Shackleton (1980), Healy-Williams et al. (1983), Reynolds and Thunell (1986), Donner and Wefer (1994), Nürnberg (1995), Berberich (1996).

Distribution: Neogloboquadrina pachyderma left coiling is nearly restricted to cold water masses, and is very often the only planktic foraminifer in Antarctic and Arctic waters. Antarctic specimens can withstand high salinities (in excess of 80), and may live in small channels within the ice (Spindler and Dieckmann, 1986).

Remark: = Globoquadrina pachyderma (left coiling)

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma