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(Forskål, 1775)

Description
Umbrella bell-shaped, higher than wide, with variable solid apical projection [Neoturris pileata ]. Jelly thin, velum narrow. The four undivided radial canals are broad and ribbon-like, with jagged outlines; ring canal broad, with smooth outlines.
Gastric peduncle absent, manubrium very large and broad, along the proximal half of the perradial edges joined by well-developed mesenteries to the radial canals. Manubrium never extending beyond umbrella margin. Mouth with very complexly folded and crenulated lips.
Gonads in eight adradial series with transverse folds directed towards interradii; depressed interradial parts of manubrium with isolated pits of gonads.
Up to 90 (usually 60-80) hollow marginal tentacles, densely crowded; large, laterally compressed, conical marginal bulbs clasping exumbrella but not forming conspicuous abaxial spurs. Without ocelli.
Developmental stages: N.pileata-stages1 , N.pileata-stages2 . Young meduse: N.pileata-young

Size
Umbrella 30-35 mm high (up to 40 mm when the apical projection is well-developed) and up to 25 mm wide.

Colour
[N.pileata-habitus ] Marginal tentacle bases yellow-ochre or orange; manubrium raisin-coloured.

Ecology and depth range
Meropelagic; neritic. Young specimens first appear in coastal plankton in May and may still be found throughout summer, mature specimens are found from July to September, possibly also later.

Distribution in the North Sea
Northern North Sea, Norwegian coast, Kattegat, Skagerrak.

World distribution
North Atlantic Ocean including Mediterranean Sea; E and W South Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans.

[After Kramp, 1926; Kramp, 1959; Russell, 1953a; Russell, 1955; Bouillon, 1999]

Neoturris pileata