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(Linnaeus, 1767)


External appearance
Solitary. Body globular to ovoid, attached by base and up to 20 mm in diameter. Test thick and leathery, bearing radially branched spines.

Both siphons 4-lobed and placed at the top. From 12-16 branched branchial tentacles of variable size. Branchial sac with numerous rows of straight and transversal orientated stigmata; six branchial folds per side; eight longitudinal bars per fold. Gut left of branchial sac; stomach narrow and small, not marked off from the rest of the gut but with many diverticula forming a complex liver. One long and lobed gonad on each side (B. echinata morphology).

Attached to hard substrata; from shallow water to depths of about 350 metres.

Arctic-Boreal distribution.

Boltenia echinata