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Author: Fowler, 1934

Field Marks:
Small size, bulbous elongated snout, no dorsal fin spine; first dorsal fin far forward, with origin over pectoral bases, second dorsal only slightly larger than first, no anal fin, dark brown colour with light-edged fins.

Diagnostic Features:
Anterior nasal flaps very short, not expanded into barbels; snout very long, bulbously conical, length almost half head length and about equal to distance from mouth to pectoral origins; gill openings very small, uniformly wide; lips thin, not fringed, pleated or suctorial; teeth strongly different in upper and lower jaws, uppers small, with narrow, acute, erect cusps and no cusplets, not bladelike, lowers much larger, bladelike, interlocked, with a high, moderately broad, semi-erect cusp and distal blade, edges no serrated; tooth rows 22/23. Both dorsal fins spineless; first dorsalwell forward, origin over pectoral bases, insertion far ahead of pelvic origins and much closer to pectoral bases than pelvics; second dorsal fin slightly larger than first but with base about equal to first dorsal base; origin of second dorsal over midbase of pelvics; pectoral fins with short, narrowly rounded free rear tips and inner margins, not expanded and acute or lobate; caudal fin semisymmetrical, almost paddle-shaped, with moderately long upper lobe and well-developed lower lobe, subterminal notch strong. No precaudal pits, lateral or midventral keels on caudal peduncle. Dermal denticles flap but with pedicels, with lanceolate, ridged, wedge-shaped, monocuspidate crowns. Cloaca normal, not expanded as a luminous gland. Colour brown with conspicuous light and dark banded fin margins.

Geographical Distribution:
South central Atlantic: Near Ascension Island. Southwestern Indian Ocean: Durban, Natal, South Africa.

Habitat and Biology:
A poorly known, apparently oceanic dwarf shark; the holotype was captured off a beach but a second specimen was recently taken in the Atlantic at night between the surface and 502 m (Krefft, 1980). Mode of reproduction unknown but probably ovoviviparous and with few young. Food unknown, presumably pelagic fish and invertebrates.

Of two specimens, the 12.8 cm female holotype is immature and has an umbilical scar, indicating it is close to the size at birth; the 28.5 cm female reported by Krefft (1980) was not examined for maturity but judging from the size of the holotype and the relative size of full-term fetuses or newborn specimens and adult females in other small pelagic squaloids this specimen could very well be mature.

Interest to Fisheries: None.

Type material:
Holotype: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, ANSP 53046, 128 mm female. Type Locality: Western Indian Ocean, Durban coast at Point Ocean Beach, Natal, South Africa.

Longnose pygmy shark (Heteroscymnoides marleyi)