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Characteristics, distribution and ecology
Taxonomische classification
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Author: (Pietschmann, 1916)

Field Marks:
A small grey shark with a moderately long rounded snout, fairly large horizontally oval eyes, a black spot on the second dorsal fin but no other markings, oblique-cusped serrated teeth in both jaws, upper teeth with strong, smooth-edged cusplets, usually 12/12 rows of anterolateral teeth, small falcate pectoral fins, a small falcate first dorsal with a short rear tip and a moderately large second dorsal with a short rear tip.

Diagnostic Features:
A usually slender species (up to about 95 m). Snout short and moderately pointed to rounded; internarial width 1.2 to 1.6 times in preoral length; eyes usually horizontally oval and moderately large, their length 2 to 2.8% of total length; anterior nasal flaps moderately elongate and broadly triangular; upper labial furrows short and inconspicuous; hyomandibular line of pores just behind mouth corners not conspicuously enlarged; usually 12/12 rows of anterolateral teeth in each jaw half but varying from 12 to 13/11 to 13; upper teeth with narrow to moderately broad, strongly serrated, strongly oblique cusps, and distal crown feet with strong, usually smooth-edged cusplets; lower teeth with oblique, serrated or smooth cusps. Interdorsal ridge present or absent. First dorsal fin small, falcate, with a pointed or narrowly rounded apex and posterior margin dropping ventrally or anteroventrally from apex; its origin usually over or slightly posterior to pectoral free rear tip; its inner margin short, about half of first dorsal base; second dorsal fin large and high, its height 2.8 to 4.3% of total length, its inner margin short and 0.8 to 1.3 times its height; origin of second dorsal slightly to noticeably behind anal fin origin; pectoral fins small, strongly falcate, and with narrow, pointed apices, length of anterior margins about 15 to 17% of total length in larger individuals (60 cm and above); 148 to 167 total vertebral centra, 74 to 85 precaudal centra. Colour grey or tan above, lighter below; a conspicuous black or dusky tip present on second dorsal fin, but other fins with pale Dosterior edoes and no dark markings; inconspicuous light stripes on flanks.

Geographical Distribution:
Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Scychelles, Mauritius, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Andaman 3 Islands, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Australia (western and northern Australia, Queensland).

Habitat and Biology:
A common coastal shark on the continental and insular shelves, from the surf line and intertidal region to 40 m depth, usually in shallow water. It is not found off river mouths and may be intolerant of reduced salinities. One was caught at the surface in water 1260 m deep west of Madagascar, but close to shallow water. Off Natal, South Africa this shark appears to be resident all year, with some increase in numbers during the summer.

Viviparous, with a yolk sac placenta; number of young 1 or 2 per litter. Off South Africa, young are born in spring, and the gestation period is thought to be about 9 months. Van der Elst (1981) gave a growth curve indicating that this is rather fast-growing for a shark, maturing at about a year old and reaching a maximum age of at least 5 years.

This shark eats small fishes, including sea horses, as well as squid and prawns. A small, harmless species, not known to be dangerous to people.

Size:
Maximum 95 cm, males maturing at 70 to 80 cm, and reaching 95 cm, females maturing at 68 to 75 cm and reaching at least 94 cm.

Interest to Fisheries:
A common inshore shark where it occurs, readily available and commonly caught by artisanal and smallscale commercial fisheries as well as sport anglers fishing from the shore. Commonly fished with line gear and gillnets off India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and utilized for human consumption.

Remarks:
The present species has often been confused with C. dussumieri, and has often been listed under its name or its synonym C. t jutiot, or C. menisorrah.

Type material:
Holotype: (Carcharias borneensis Seale, 1910), Bureau of Science, Manila, the Philippines, 2720 (apparently lost; Garrick, 1982). Type Locality: Sandakan, Borneo.

Blackspot shark (Carcharhinus sealei)