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Author: Fourmanoir and Rivaton, 1979

Field Marks:
Two dorsal fins with ungrooved large spines, first dorsal spine origin in front of pectoral rear tips, snout rounded-parabolic and extremely long, preoral snout about twice mouth width, conspicuous black tips on pectoral fins, black dorsal caudal margin, and black ventral caudal lobe, no white spots on sides, oblique-cusped cutting teeth in both jaws, no subterminal notch on caudal fin, no anal fin, and upper precaudal pit and lateral keels on caudal peduncle.

Diagnostic Features:
Body fairly slender. Snout narrowly parabolic, narrow, and very long, diagonal distance from snout tip to excurrent aperture of nostril greater than that from excurrent aperture to upper labial furrow, preoral snout about 2.3 times mouth width, preorbital snout over twice eye length; eyes much closer to first gill slits than snout tip; nostrils closer to mouth than snout tip; anterior nasal flap with posterior secondary lobe small and considerably narrower at base than distance from its base to inner corner of nostril. First dorsal spine long, about 2/3 of fin base and with tip falling somewhat below apex of fin; second spine long, slightly higher than fin, and over 6% of total length; first dorsal fin anteriorly situated, with fin and spine origins over pectoral inner margins; first dorsal fairly high, height slightly over 3/4 of itrs length from origin to rear tip; second dorsal markedly smaller than first, but with height more than 5% of total length; pectoral fins probably semifalcate and with narrowly rounded rear tips; pelvic midbases about equidistant between first and second dorsal bases; caudal fin narrow-lobed and long, with long ventral lobe and strongly notched postventral margin. Precaudal pits strong. Lateral trunk denticles tricuspidate and with weakly scalloped posterior borders in adults. Colour: no white spots on body, dorsal fin tips, dorsal caudal margin, and entire ventral caudal lobe conspicuously black. Size moderate, up to 75 cm.

Geographical Distribution:
Known only from New Caledonia, from the Uatio and Bulari passes.

Habitat and Biology:
A little known, very distinctive longnosed dogfish from the insular slopes of New Caledonia, at depths of 320 to 340 m. Probably ovoviviparous; a single fetus was present in one female specimen. Eats lanternfishes, boarfishes, barracudinas, and flatheads. Specimens vigorously defend themselves by whipping their bodies and long second dorsal spines when captured.

Size:
Maximum total length 75 cm (adult females).

Interest to Fisheries:
None at present.

Remarks:
Inadequately described but apparently distinct from other species of Squalus.

Type material:
Holotype: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, MNHN 1980-460, 650 mm male, presumably adult. Type Locality: New Caledonia.

Blacktailed spurdog (Squalus melanurus)