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Characteristics, distribution and ecology
Taxonomische classification
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Author: (Smith and Radcliffe, 1912)

Field Marks:
Extremely long snout, no anal fin, grooved dorsal fin spines, compressed cutting teeth in both jaws, small, pitchfork-shaped denticles, subeaudal keel on underside of caudal peduncle, first dorsal fin short and high.

Diagnostic Features:
First dorsal fin short and high, origin over inner margins of pectoral fins; distance from origin of first dorsal spine to first dorsal free rear tip slightly greater than distance from free rear tip to second dorsal spine. A subeaudal keel present on underside of caudal peduncle. Denticles small, crown length about 25 mm long. Colour dark grey or grey brown. Size smaller than other Deania, maximum total length about 76 cm.

Geographical Distribution:
Western North Atlantic: North Carolina. Eastern Atlantic: West Sahara to Senegal, Nigeria, Gabon to Zaire, Namibia. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Western Pacific: The Philippines.

Habitat and Biology:
A little-known dogfish of the upper continental and insular slopes, found on or near the bottom at depths from 275 to 1785 m. Ovoviviparous, probable number of young 5 to 7 judging from uterine fertilized eggs. Eats small benthic and midwater bony fishes, including lanternfish, squid and crustaceans.

Size:
Maximum total length about 76 cm, adults males 43 to 67 cm, adults females 70 to 76 cm, size at birth above 31 cm.

Interest to Fisheries: None ?

Remarks:
This account follows Bass, d'Aubrey and Kistnasamy (1976) in including Deania cremouxi in tentative synonymy ofD. profundorum, along with D. natalense and D. elegans. However, Cadenat and Blache (1981) considered it a 'form' of D. calcea.

Type material:
Holotype: US National Museum of Natural History, USNM-70258, 430 mm adult male. Type Locality: Philippine Islands, between Leyte and Mindanao, 9° 24'N, 125° 12'E, 1347 m.

Arrowhead dogfish (Deania profundorum)