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Abbott, R. T., 1974. (2 ed.). American seashells. New York, Cincinnati, Toronto, London, Melbourne (van Nostrand Reinhold Co.): 1-663, 6405 figs.

Aron, W., 1960. Animals in the eastern North Pacific and its relationship to physical and chemical conditions. Univ. Wash. Dep. oceanogr. Tech Rep. 63: 65-154 .

Aron, W., 1962. The distribution of animals in the eastern North Pacific and its relationship to physical and chemical conditions. J. Fish. Res. Brd Canada 19(2): 271-314, 13 figs.

Bé, A. W. H. and Gilmer, A. W., 1977. A zoogeographic and taxonomic review of euthecosomatous Pteropoda. In: A. T. S., Ramsay (ed). Oceanic Micropalaeontology I. Acad. Press London: 733-808.

Dall, W. H., 1871. Descriptions of sixty new forms of mollusks from the west coast of North America and the north Pacific Ocean, with notes on others already described. Amer. J. Conch. 7(2): 93-160, pls 13-16.

Dall, W. H., 1921. Summary of the marine shell-bearing mollusks of the north west coast of America, from San Diego, California to the polar sea, mostly contained in the collection of the United States National Museum, with illustrations of hitherto infigured species. Smithonian Inst. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 112: 1-217, pls 1-22.

Dall, W. H., 1925. The Pteropoda collected by the Canadian Arctic expedition 1913-1918, with description of a new species from the North Pacific. Rep. Can. Arct. Exp. 1913-1918, 8(B): 9B-12B, fig. 4.

Hida, T. S., 1957. Chaetognaths and pteropods as biological indicators in the North Pacific. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Science. Report Fisheries 215: 1-13.

Ikeda, T., 1989. Are Antarctic zooplankton metabolically more cold-adapted than Arctic zooplankton? An intra-generic composition of oxygen consumption rates. J. Plankt. Res. 11(3): 619-624.

Mackie, G. O., 1985. Midwater macroplankton of British Columbia studied by submersible PISCES IV. J. Plankt. Res.: 753-777.

McGowan, J. A., 1960. The systematics, distribution, and abundance of the Euthecosomata of the North Pacific. San Diego (Ph. D. thesis University of California): 1-212, 17 tabs, 54 figs.

McGowan, J. A., 1963. Geographical variation in Limacina helicina in the North Pacific. Syst. Assoc. Publ. 5 (Speciation in the sea): 109-128, 14 figs.

McGowan, J. A., 1967. Distributional atlas of pelagic molluscs in the California Current region. CALCOFI Atlas 6: 1-218.

McGowan, J. A., 1968. The Thecosomata and Gymnosomata of California. Veliger 3 (suppl.): 103-130, pls 12-20.

Okutani, T., 1965. Heteropoda and Thecosomata in the Kuroshio. Bull. Plankt. Japan 12: 37-39.

Pelseneer, P., 1888a. Report on the Pteropoda collected by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876, 2. The Thecosomata Reports on the scientific. Results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876 (zool.) 23(1): 1-132, 2 figs, 2 pls.

Pierrot-Bults, A. C. and Spoel, S. van der, 1979a. Speciation in macrozooplankton. In: Spoel, S. van der and Pierrot-Bults, A. C. (eds). Zoogeography and diversity in plankton. Utrecht (Bunge Sci. Publ.): 144-167.

Soutar, A., 1971. Micropalaeontology of anaerobic sediments and the California Current. In: Funnell, B. M. and Riedel, W. R. (eds.). The micropalaeontology of oceans. Cambridge (University Press): 223-230, figs 13. 1-13. 5.

Tesch, J. J., 1913c. Mollusca, Pteropoda. In: F. E. Schulze. Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen 36. Berlin (Friedberger and Sohn): i-xvi, 1-154, 108 figs.

Tesch, J. J., 1948. The thecosomatous pteropods, 2. The Indo-Pacific. Dana Report 30: 1-45, 34 figs, 3 pls.

Spoel, S. van der and Heyman, R. P., 1983. A comparative atlas of zooplankton. Biological patterns in the oceans. Bunge, Utrecht; Springer Verl., Berlin: 1-186.

Spoel, S. van der and Pierrot-Bults, A. C., 1979. Zoogeography of the Pacific Ocean. In: S. van der Spoel and A. C. Pierrot-Bults (eds). Zoogeography and diversity in plankton. Utrecht (Bunge Sci. Publ.): 293-327.

Spoel, S. van der, 1967. Euthecosomata, a group with remarkable developmental stages (Gastropoda, Pteropoda). J. Noorduyn and Zn, Gorinchem, 375 pp.

Summary (in Dutch also published separately)

Spoel, S. van der, 1971b. Some problems in infraspecific classification of holoplanktonic animals. Zeitschr. Zool. Syst. Evol. 9 (2): 107-138.

Spoel, S. van der, 1976c. Pseudothecosomata, Gymnosomata and Heteropoda. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht. 484 pp. 246 figs.

Spoel, S. van der, 1983b. Sur la répartition, la variation et la réproduction de quelques mollusques planctoniques (Ptéropodes). BIOMAR Univ. Bruxelles 2: 79-92.

Spoel, S. van der, 1987d. Five Pteropod species new for the Gulf of Alaska. Biol. Oceanogr. 5: 29-42.

Zhang, F., 1966. The pelagic mollusca of the China coast, II: on the ecology of the pelagic moluscs of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 2(1): 13-28.

Limacina helicina helicina pacifica