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Cavolinia uncinata (Rang, 1829a) subsp. uncinata (Rang, 1829a) forma pulsata Van der Spoel, 1969c


This is a large uncoiled thecosomatous pteropod, 1 cm long. It has a flat dorsal side with moderately developed ribs. There is no keel along the lateral sides. The caudal spine is curved and relatively long. The ventral side clearly vaulted. Shell sculpture consists of faint growth lines and transverse striation near the aperture and the shell surface shows a strongly hammered structure. The dorsal lip curves over the aperture. Micro-zooplankton and phytoplankton are its food and it is a mucus feeder. It lives in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, at shallow and moderate depths (Cavolinia u.u. pulsata).

Taxonomic Description

The shell has a brown hue, the lateral spines curves strongly caudally, the short caudal spine bends slightly dorsal, the shell aperture is wide, and the shell surface has a strong hammered structure (Cavolinia u.u. pulsata dorsal, Cavolinia u.u. pulsata2, Cavolinia u.u. pulsata 1).
Shell length varies between 6.0 and 9.2 mm, and its width varies between 4.5 and 7.0 mm.


In juveniles protoconch I is usually quickly worn off so that this part, with its finer striation, is absent. The juvenile shell first develops as two half-circular flat valves (Cavolinia u.u. pulsata juv., Cavolinia u.u. pulsata 3, Cavolinia u.u. pulsata 4). These valves are first identical, later the dorsal one grows more rapidly than the ventral one.


This forma is a protandric hermaphrodite.


This forma is phytophagous.


This forma occurs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, see the Cavolinia u.u. pulsata map.


Cavolinia uncinata forma pulsata Van der Spoel, 1969a: 192, figs. 4, 6A, 7E.
Holotype: ZMUC (alcohol collection).
Type locality: 02°37'S 99°36'E. Coll.: CDAE stat. 3860xxii.
Etymology: it is named for the hammered (pulsate) structure of the shell.

Cavolinia uncinata uncinata pulsata