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Paulson, 1875

Diagnosis:
The teeth in the median line of the carapace low and obscure: the rostral tooth is usually reduced to a mere tubercle, the pregastric tooth is distinct, but low, the gastric tooth is absent; the cardiac tooth (behind the cervical groove) is replaced by 2 low blunt and flattened submedian tubercles. The region between the post-rostral and branchial carinae shows few tubercles and rather large smooth areas. Abdomen without median carina, the median area of the somites is low and flat. The exposed part of the abdominal somites shows an arborescent pattern of narrow grooves. Somite 1 has a complete transverse groove behind which there are numerous parallel oblique grooves, which in the middle of the segment form a triangular figure. Fourth segment of the antenna with a single straight and obliquely directed median carina; no additional carinae or tubercles on the dorsal surface Outer margin of the segment with two distinct sharp teeth, inner margin with a large single sharp tooth (apical tooth of segment not included). Thoracic sternum with the anterior margin straight and transverse, with a very narrow median incision. The anterior margin forms a broad ridge behind which there is a sunken triangular area. No median tubercles on the sternites. Dactylus of pereiopods 1, 2, 4 and 5 without hairy fringes.
Colour: the body is reddish brown. Most conspicuous and characteristic are two large dark spots on the first abdominal somite, one on each side slightly above the base of the pleuron. The legs are pale with a few dark bands (see Chan and Yu, 1986, pls. 2, 8B).

Type:
Type locality of S. bertholdii and S. haanii Berthold (the former being a replacement name for the latter): China. Lectotype female RMNH, no. 5518, dry, condition rather poor. A possible paralectotype in SMF, under no. 7 MG 233. The specimen, a dry female labelled "Mare Indicum", is the only specimen of this species from the collection of the Göttingen Museum now on permanent loan in the Senckenberg Museum. It was not labelled as being a type.
Type locality of S. sinensis: "China". Syntypes in BM.

Diagnostic Features:
The teeth in the median line of the carapace low and obscure: the rostral tooth is usually reduced to a mere tubercle, the pregastric tooth is distinct, but low, the gastric tooth is absent; the cardiac tooth (behind the cervical groove) is replaced by 2 low blunt and flattened submedian tubercles. The region between the post-rostral and branchial carinae shows few tubercles and rather large smooth areas. Abdomen without median carina, the median area of the somites is low and flat. The exposed part of the abdominal somites shows an arborescent pattern of narrow grooves. Somite 1 has a complete transverse groove behind which there are numerous parallel oblique grooves, which in the middle of the segment form a triangular figure. Fourth segment of the antenna with a single straight and obliquely directed median carina; no additional carinae or tubercles on the dorsal surface Outer margin of the segment with two distinct sharp teeth, inner margin with a large single sharp tooth (apical tooth of segment not included). Thoracic sternum with the anterior margin straight and transverse, with a very narrow median incision. The anterior margin forms a broad ridge behind which there is a sunken triangular area. No median tubercles on the sternites. Dactylus of pereiopods 1, 2, 4 and 5 without hairy fringes. Colour: the body is reddish brown. Most conspicuous and characteristic are two large dark spots on the first abdominal somite, one on each side slightly above the base of the pleuron. The legs are pale with a few dark bands (see Chan and Yu, 1986, pls. 2, 8B).

Geographical Distribution:
Indo-West Pacific region: S. China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, W. and N. Australia.

Habitat and Biology:
Reported from depths between 15 and 150 m, but most common between 40 and 75 m. Found on a soft substrate (mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, sand, coralline algae,etc.).

Size:
Maximum total body length 4.2 cm (males), 5.8 cm (females). Carapace length 0.4 to 1.5 cm (males), 0.5 to 2 cm (females, including ovigerous ones)

Interest to Fisheries:
The species is caught by trawlers (with "baby shrimp trawls") as a by-catch and so may reach fish markets, e.g. in Taiwan (see Chan and Yu, 1986: 149). It is not known whether the animals are sold as food.

Two-spot locust lobster (Scyllarus bertholdii)