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Fischer, W., G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds), 1981. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic (Fishing Areas 34,47 in part), vol. 5:pag.var.

Smith, S.I., 1869. Descriptions of a new genus and two new species of scyllaridae and a new species of Aethra from North America. American Journal Science, (2)48: 118-121.

Williams, A.B., 1986. Lobsters - Identification, world distribution, and U.S. trade. Marine Fisheries Review, 48(2):1-36, figs 1-80

Brown spiny lobster (Panulirus echinatus)