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Pfeffer, 1881

Diagnosis:
Carapace with two distinct teeth in the median line before the cervical groove (the gastric and pregastric teeth), the rostral tooth is absent, and replaced by an inconspicuous tubercle. The region between the postrostral and branchial carinae shows many tubercles, especially in the posterior half of the carapace. The abdomen has a conspicuously elevated longitudinal median carina on somites 2 to 5, that of somite 2 shows as an inverted V-shaped ridge when looked at dorsally. The carina of somite 3 is somewhat higher than the others. Somite 1 shows a complete transverse groove behind which there are about 16 straight, parallel longitudinal unbranched grooves, which are quite characteristic for the species. The other somites show a somewhat arborescent pattern on the exposed part. The fourth segment of the antenna has, apart from the distinct and sharp oblique median carina, an additional short curved carina formed by a row of tubercles; this additional carina is on the outer half of the segment. The outer margin of the segment has 3 to 5 (mostly 3) distinct teeth (apical tooth not included), the inner margin has 5 to 9 teeth, the basal of which is largest. The anterior margin of the thoracic sternum is very shallowly concave, narrowly incised in the middle and with a small tubercle either side of that incision. Sternites 2 to 4 show a faint median tubercle each. The pereiopods show no hairy fringes on the dactyli.
Colour: the body is yellowish or reddish brown, somewhat irregularly marbled. A darker brown transverse band may be present on the third abdominal somite. The legs show a darker band on some of the segments (see Chan and Yu, 1986, pls 3, 8C, D).

Type:
Type locality: not mentioned in the original description. The two female syntypes are in the collection of ZMH under no. K 7955 and are labelled "Amur Mus. Godeffroy". The locality indication evidently is incorrect as the mouth of the Amur River lies far to the north of the northern limit of the range of S. martensii. The Museum Godeffroy was founded around 1860 as the private collection of Johann Cesar VI Godeffroy, the director of the shipping company J.C. Godeffroy and Sohn in Hamburg. The ships of this company visited East and South Asia, Australia, and the Central and Eastern Pacific. Their captains were asked to collect for the Museum and brought important collections home for that purpose; also private persons were sent out by Godeffroy to collect. When in 1879 the firm Godeffroy collapsed, most of the zoological collections were acquired by the Hamburg Museum. The types of S. martensii were most likely collected in S.E. Asia, but nothing definite can be said in this respect.

Diagnostic Features:
Carapace with two distinct teeth in the median line before the cervical groove (the gastric and pregastric teeth), the rostral tooth is absent, and replaced by an inconspicuous tubercle. The region between the postrostral and branchial carinae shows many tubercles, especially in the posterior half of the carapace. The abdomen has a conspicuously elevated longitudinal median carina on somites 2 to 5, that of somite 2 shows as an inverted V-shaped ridge when looked at dorsally. The carina of somite 3 is somewhat higher than the others. Somite 1 shows a complete transverse groove behind which there are about 16 straight, parallel longitudinal unbranched grooves, which are quite characteristic for the species. The other somites show a somewhat arborescent pattern on the exposed part. The fourth segment of the antenna has, apart from the distinct and sharp oblique median carina, an additional short curved carina formed by a row of tubercles; this additional carina is on the outer half of the segment. The outer margin of the segment has 3 to 5 (mostly 3) distinct teeth (apical tooth not included), the inner margin has 5 to 9 teeth, the basal of which is largest. The anterior margin of the thoracic sternum is very shallowly concave, narrowly incised in the middle and with a small tubercle either side of that incision. Sternites 2 to 4 show a faint median tubercle each. The pereiopods show no hairy fringes on the dactyli. Colour: the body is yellowish or reddish brown, somewhat irregularly marbled. A darker brown transverse band may be present on the third abdominal somite. The legs show a darker band on some of the segments (see Chan and Yu, 1986, pls 3, 8C, D).

Geographical Distribution:
Indo-West Pacific region from East Africa (Zanzibar, Mozambique) and the western Indian Ocean to Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, N.W., N. and N.E. Australia and New Caledonia.

Habitat and Biology:
The species has been found in depths between 6 and 79 m, mostly between 10 and 50 m. The substrate that it inhabits is soft and smooth, consisting of sand and/or mud, sometimes with shells, pumice, foraminiferans or bryozoans.

Size:
The total body length in this species is 2 to 4 cm (males), 2 to 6 cm (females), 2.5 to 4 cm (ovigerous females); the respective carapace lengths being 0.4 to 1.3 cm (males), 0.7 to 2 cm (females), 0.5 to 1.5 cm (ovigerous females).

Interest to Fisheries:
None. The species is too small to be of any commercial interest and is not found in great quantities. It is sometimes caught accidentally by trawlers fishing for other species; in this way the specimens may reach the fish markets. So far as is known the specimens are not sold per se. Chan and Yu (1986: 149) report the species from fish markets in Taiwan being caught there by "baby" shrimp trawlers.

Striated locust lobster (Scyllarus martensii)