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Author: Valenciennes, 1828

Epinephelus alexandrinus Valenciennes, 1828

Diagnosis: body rather elongate. D XI + 16-18; A III + 8-9; caudal fin slightly rounded in young, well emarginate in adults. Scales small, embedded in thick skin, over 90 in lateral line. Colour: young reddishbrown with 5-7 darker, longitudinal lines on body and 2 oblique dark lines on opercle; adult grey-brown; large specimens with a large golden blotch on side which disappears quickly after death. Size: to 140 cm SL, usually 50-80 cm.

Habitat: rocky and muddy bottoms to about 300 m. Often in small groups (chiefly young). Food: fishes and cephalopods. Reproduction: no data.

Distribution: eastern Atlantic northward to Strait of Gibraltar, also southern Mediterranean. Elsewhere, southward to Nigeria.

Eggs, larvae and young stages. Bertolini's (1933) & Sparta's (1935) materials belong to Mycleroperca rubra, not E. alexandrinus.
Otoliths (sagitta). Chaine, 1935: 148j pl. 12.

Golden grouper (Epinephelus alexandrinus)