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*Lacepède, B. 1798-1803. Histoire naturelle des Poissons, 5 vol. in-4, Paris. I: 1798, 8+cxlvii+532 p., 25 pl., 1 tabl. (inset); II: 1800, Ixiv+632 p., 20 pl.; III: 1801, 558 p., 34 pl.; IV: 1802, xliv+728 p., 16 pl.; V: 1803, xlviii+803 p., 21 pl.

*Nobre, A. 1935. Fauna marinha de Portugal. 1. Vertebrados (Mamiferos, Reptis e Peixes), Porto.: Ixxxiv+1-21 (Mamiferos); 1-5 (Reptis); 1-574 (Peixes), 77 pl., 64 phot.

Albuquerque, R. M. 1954-1956. Peixes de Portugal e ilhas adjacentes. Chavas para a sua determinação. Port. Acta biol., ser. B,5:xvi+1167 p., 445 fig.

Andriashev, A. P.1964b. Fishes of the Northern Seas of the USSR. Jerusalem, IPST, 617 p., 300 fig. (Translated from: Ryby severnykh morei SSSR. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moskwa-Leningrad, 1954.)

Bini, G. 1967-72. Atlante dei pesci delle Coste italiane. Mondo Sommerso, Milano, 9 vol: I, 1967, Leptocardi, Ciclostomi, Selaci, 206 p., 66 fig+64 col. fig. II, 1971, Osteitti (Acipenseriformi, Clupeiformi, Mictofiformi, Anguilliformi), 300 p., 73 col. fig. III, 1970, Notacantiformi . . . Zeiformi, 229 p., 34 fig+63 col. fig. IV, 1968, Perciformi (Mugiloidei, Percoidei), 163 p., 34 fig+49 col. fig. V, 1968, Perciformi (Percoidei), 175 p., 22 fig.+56 col. fig. VI, 1968, Perciformi (Trichiuroidei . . . Blennioidei), 177 p., 48 fig+57 col. fig. VII,1969, Perciformi (Ofidioidei . . . Dactilopteroidei), 196 p., 57 fig.+59 col. fig. VIII,1968, Pleuronettiformi, Echeniformi, Gobioesociformi, Tetraodontiformi, Lofiformi, 164 p., 34+63 fig. IX, 1972, Introduzione. Parte generale. Aggiornamenti. Indici. 176 p.

Bonaparte, C. L. 1832-41, Iconografia della Fauna italica per le quattro classi degli Animali Vertebrati, tomo III, Pesci, Roma, without pagination, 75 puntate (in 30 fasc.), 78 pl.

Canestrini, G.1871-72. Pesci d'Italia. Parte I, 1871, Pesci delle acque dolci: 436, 2 fig., Parte II, 1872, Pesci marini: 37-208. In: E. Cornalia, 1870-74, Fauna d'Italia, Milano, 3 :1-208.

Carus, J. V. 1893. Vertebrata. 1. class. Pisces: 498-711, In: Prodromus faunae Mediterraneae sive Descriptio Animalium Maris Mediterranei incolarum quam comparata silva rerum quatenus innotuit adiectis locis et nominibus vulgaribus. . . Stuttgart, 1899-93, 2: ix+854 p.

Clark, R. S.1926. Rays and Skates, a revision of the european species. Fisheries, Scotland, Scient. Invest., (1) :1-66, fig. 1-42, pl. 1-36.

Clark, R. S.1929-32. Selachii, Raiidae. In: L. Joubin, ed., Faune ichthyol. Atl. N., CIEM, Copenhagen: fiches 34bis-57.

Day, F. 1880-84. The Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland. London-Edinburgh, 2 vol., cxii+336 p., 5+7 fig., 92 pl. and 388 p., 87 pl. 1880:1(1):1-64, pl. I-XXVII; 1881: 1(2) (3): 65-240, pl. XXVIII-LXVIII; 1882: 1(4): 241-336, pl. LXIX-XCII; 2 (5) :1-96, pl. XCIII-CXVI; 1883: 2 (6): 97-176, pl. CXVII-CXXXII; 2 (7) :177-272, pl. CXXXIII-CXLVIII; 1884: 2 (8): 273-368, pl. CXLIX-CLXXIX.

Dieuzeide, R.; Novella, M. (collab. J. Roland), 1953-55. Catalogue des Poissons des Côtes algériennes. Bull. Stn Aquic. Pêch. Castiglione, I (n.s.), (4), 1952 [1953]: 1-135, 73 fig. n. num.; II (n.s.), (5), 1953 [1954] :1-258, 135 fig. n. num.; III (n.s.), (6), 1954 [1955] :1-384, 202 fig. n. num.

Döderlein, P.1879-91. Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ed in particolare nei mari di Sicilia. Palermo, 1879-91 (on title: '1879-80') 5 parts: I, 1879: viii+67 p.; II, 1881:1-120; III, 1884 :121-258; IV, 1889 :1-188; V, 1891:189-320.

Duméril, A. H. A.1865. Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale, Paris, 2 vol., 1: 720 p., Atlas: 14 pl.

Ehrenbaum, E. 1927b. XII. Chondrostei. In: G. Grimpe & E. Wagler, Die Tierwelt der Nordund Ostsee, 9 (12): f3-f8, 4 fig.

Ehrenbaum, E. 1936. Naturgeschichte und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Seefische Nordeuropas, in Handbuch der Seefischerei N. Eur., 2: x+337 p., 276 fig., 2 tabl., 26 pl.

Fowler, H. W.1936. The Marine Fishes of West Africa, based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-15. Bull. am. Mus. nat. Hist., 70 (1), Jan. 21, 1936: vii+606 p., fig. 1-275; (2), Nov. 18,1936: 607-1493, fig. 276-567.

Fries, B. F. 1839a. Granskning af de vid Svenska kusterna förekommande arter af FiskSlägtet Raja. K svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., 1838 [1839]: 126-164, pl. 2-3.

Garman, S. 1913. The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates, and Rays). Mem. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv., 36: xiii+528 p., 77 pl.

Griffini, A. 1903. Ittiologia italiana, Manuali Hoepli, Milano: xii+475 p., 244 fig.

Günther, A.1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 8. Catalogue of the Physostomi containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, Cyclostomata, Leptocardii in the collection of the British Museum. London, xxv+549 p.

Heintz, N. 1962. On Raia batis L., R. nidrosiensis Collett and R. oxyrhynchus (L.) from Norwegian waters and their mutual relationship. Sarsia, 5 :1-67, fig. 1-11.

Jenkins, J. T. 1925. The fishes of the British Isles both fresh water and salt. London: vii+ 376 p., 143 pl.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, ed. X, vol. 1, 824 p. Nantes & Pisces: 230-338. (Reprint, 1956, London.)

Lo Bianco, S.1909. Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturita sessuale degli animali del golfo di Napoli. Mitt. zool Stn Neapel, 19: 513-761.

Lozano y Rey, L.1928. Fauna Ibérica. Pesces (Generalidades, Ciclóstomos y Elasmobranquios). Mus. Nac. Ciencias Nat., Madrid, 1:1-692,197 fig., 20 pl.

Malm, A. W. 1877. Göteborg och Bohusläns fauna. Ryggradsdjuren. Göteborg, 674 p., 9 pl.

Moreau, E.1881-91. Histoire naturelle des poissons de la France, Paris, I, 1881: I-VII+ 1-480, fig. 1-82; II, 1881:1-572, fig. 83-145; III, 1881:1-697, fig. 146-220; Suppl., 1891: 1-144, fig. 221-227.

Müller, J.; Henle, J.1841. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin, xxii+204 p., 60 pl.

Muus, B. J.; Dahlström, P. 1965. Meeresfische in Farben, 244 p., 173 numb. and many unnumb. fig.

Poll, M.1947. Poissons marins in Faune de Belgique. Bruxelles, 452 p., 267 fig., 2 pl., 2 maps n. num. (inset).

Risso, A.1810. Ichthyologie de Nice, ou histoire naturelle des poissons du département des Alpes Maritimes. Paris, xxxvi+388 p., 11 pl. (Reprint, 1966, Asher, Amsterdam.)

Risso, A.1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes. Paris et Strasbourg, vol. III, XVI+486 p., 16 pl.

Roland, J. 1953. Diagnoses de quelques Raies des Côtes algériennes. Bull. Stn Aquic. Pêch. Castiglione (n.s.), 1952 (4) :139-274, fig. 1-32.

Smitt, F. A. 1893-95. (ed.) A history of Scandinavian fishes, Stockholm and Paris, Atlas, I, 1893, pl. i-xxvii.

Soljan, T. 1963. Fishes of the Adriatic (Ribe Jadrana). Fauna et flora adriatica 1 (revised and enlarged for the English edition), 428 p., many unnumbered fig.

Stehmann, M. 1970. Vergleichend morphologische und anatomische Untersuchungen zur Neuordnung der Systematik der nordostatlantischen Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Arch. FischWiss., 21(2): 73-163,1 fig., pl. 1-27.

Tortonese, E. 1956b. Leptocardia, Ciclostomata, Selachii. Fauna Ital., 2: 334 p., 163 fig.

Wheeler, A. 1969. The Fishes of the British Isles and North-West Europe. Macmillan, London, Melbourne and Toronto: i-xvii+1-163, 5+177 fig., +392 fig. (princ. sp.)+92 n. num. fig., 16 pl., maps.

Williamson, H. C. 1913. On the eggs of certain skates (Raia). Scient. Invest. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1912 [1913], (1): 1-6, pl. 1-5.

Long nosed skate (Raja oxyrinchus)