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Clark, R. S.1926. Rays and Skates, a revision of the european species. Fisheries, Scotland, Scient. Invest., (1) :1-66, fig. 1-42, pl. 1-36.

Duméril, A. H. A.1865. Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale, Paris, 2 vol., 1: 720 p., Atlas: 14 pl.

Fowler, H. W.1936. The Marine Fishes of West Africa, based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-15. Bull. am. Mus. nat. Hist., 70 (1), Jan. 21, 1936: vii+606 p., fig. 1-275; (2), Nov. 18,1936: 607-1493, fig. 276-567.

Garman, S. 1913. The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates, and Rays). Mem. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv., 36: xiii+528 p., 77 pl.

Günther, A.1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 8. Catalogue of the Physostomi containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, Cyclostomata, Leptocardii in the collection of the British Museum. London, xxv+549 p.

Hilgendorf, F. M.1888. Zur Kenntnis der Azorenfauna. II. Die Fische der Azoren. Arch. Naturgesch., 54: 205-213 .

Leigh-Sharpe, W. H. 1924. The comparative morphology of the secondary sexual characters of elasmobranch fishes. The claspers, clasper siphons, and claspr glands. VII. J. Morph., 39 (2): 567-577, fig. 1-15.

Lowe, R. T.1839. A supplement to a synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 7: 76-92 (also publ. in Trans. zool. Soc. Lond., 1842, 3 (1) :1-20).

Stehmann, M. 1970. Vergleichend morphologische und anatomische Untersuchungen zur Neuordnung der Systematik der nordostatlantischen Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Arch. FischWiss., 21(2): 73-163,1 fig., pl. 1-27.

Stehmann, M. 1971b. Untersuchungen zur Validität von Raja maderensis Lowe, 1839, zur geographischen Variation von Raja straeleni Poll, 1951, und zum subgenerischen Status beider Arten(Pisces,Batoidei, Rajidae). Arch. FischWiss., 22 (3) :175-199, fig. 1-13.

Valenciennes, A. 1837-44. Ichthyologie des îles Canaries, ou histoire naturelle des poissons rapportés par MM. Webb et Berthelot. In: P. B. Webb et S. Berthelot, Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries. Paris, 2 (2):1-109, 26pl. [Plates: 1837: pl.1, 3-4, 8, 11-12; 1838: pl. 7, 10, 13, 14, 17; 1839: pl. 5, 9, 15-16, 18; 1840: pl. 2; 1841: pl. 6- 1842: pl. 19;1843: pl. 20-23;1844: pl. 2426. Text: 1842 :1-8;1843: 9-96;1844: 97-109].

Madeira ray (Raja maderensis)