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Author: Lowe, 1839

Raja (Raja) maderensis Lowe, 1839

Diagnosis: upper surface at all sizes wholly prickly (dense, coarse spinules), underside almost entirely prickly (partly in young). Orbital thorns separate; a regular row of 21-25 large thorns from nape to first dorsal fin, 2-3 thorns between dorsal fins and thorns on lower edges of tail. Colour: upper surface dark brown with a constant pattern of irregular light spots forming broad undulating transverse bands with narrower unspotted bands between; underside predominantly white, but grey on snout and broad dark margin to disc from behind midpoint of anterior margin; also blackish at tip of tail, at axils of pectoral fins and on tips of the front lobes of pelvic fins, as well as a large dark circular spot at middle of shoulder girdle and on tip of snout. Size: to 70-80 cm TL.

Habiat: benthic, from shallow water to about I50 m, moderately common, but few certain records. Food: all kinds of benthic animals. Reproduction: oviparous; no other data.

Distribution: only Madeira, but possibly also the Azores. Records from the coasts of north-western Africa and from the Canaries have all been misidentifications, mainly of R. clavata and R. straeleni.

Eggs, embryonic and young stages. No data.

Madeira ray (Raja maderensis)