Home|Search|Identify|Taxonomic tree|Quiz|About this site|Feedback
Developed by ETI BioInformatics
Characteristics, distribution and ecology
Taxonomische classification
Synonyms and common names
Literature references
Images, audio and video
Links to other Web sites

*Nobre, A. 1935. Fauna marinha de Portugal. 1. Vertebrados (Mamiferos, Reptis e Peixes), Porto.: Ixxxiv+1-21 (Mamiferos); 1-5 (Reptis); 1-574 (Peixes), 77 pl., 64 phot.

Albuquerque, R. M. 1954-1956. Peixes de Portugal e ilhas adjacentes. Chavas para a sua determinação. Port. Acta biol., ser. B,5:xvi+1167 p., 445 fig.

Bini, G. 1967-72. Atlante dei pesci delle Coste italiane. Mondo Sommerso, Milano, 9 vol: I, 1967, Leptocardi, Ciclostomi, Selaci, 206 p., 66 fig+64 col. fig. II, 1971, Osteitti (Acipenseriformi, Clupeiformi, Mictofiformi, Anguilliformi), 300 p., 73 col. fig. III, 1970, Notacantiformi . . . Zeiformi, 229 p., 34 fig+63 col. fig. IV, 1968, Perciformi (Mugiloidei, Percoidei), 163 p., 34 fig+49 col. fig. V, 1968, Perciformi (Percoidei), 175 p., 22 fig.+56 col. fig. VI, 1968, Perciformi (Trichiuroidei . . . Blennioidei), 177 p., 48 fig+57 col. fig. VII,1969, Perciformi (Ofidioidei . . . Dactilopteroidei), 196 p., 57 fig.+59 col. fig. VIII,1968, Pleuronettiformi, Echeniformi, Gobioesociformi, Tetraodontiformi, Lofiformi, 164 p., 34+63 fig. IX, 1972, Introduzione. Parte generale. Aggiornamenti. Indici. 176 p.

Bonaparte, C. L. 1832-41, Iconografia della Fauna italica per le quattro classi degli Animali Vertebrati, tomo III, Pesci, Roma, without pagination, 75 puntate (in 30 fasc.), 78 pl.

Canestrini, G.1871-72. Pesci d'Italia. Parte I, 1871, Pesci delle acque dolci: 436, 2 fig., Parte II, 1872, Pesci marini: 37-208. In: E. Cornalia, 1870-74, Fauna d'Italia, Milano, 3 :1-208.

Carus, J. V. 1893. Vertebrata. 1. class. Pisces: 498-711, In: Prodromus faunae Mediterraneae sive Descriptio Animalium Maris Mediterranei incolarum quam comparata silva rerum quatenus innotuit adiectis locis et nominibus vulgaribus. . . Stuttgart, 1899-93, 2: ix+854 p.

Clark, R. S.1922. Rays and Skates (Raiae). No. 1. Egg-Capsules and Young. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K (n.s.), 12 (4): 577-643, fig 1-20.

Clark, R. S.1926. Rays and Skates, a revision of the european species. Fisheries, Scotland, Scient. Invest., (1) :1-66, fig. 1-42, pl. 1-36.

Clark, R. S.1929-32. Selachii, Raiidae. In: L. Joubin, ed., Faune ichthyol. Atl. N., CIEM, Copenhagen: fiches 34bis-57.

Day, F. 1880-84. The Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland. London-Edinburgh, 2 vol., cxii+336 p., 5+7 fig., 92 pl. and 388 p., 87 pl. 1880:1(1):1-64, pl. I-XXVII; 1881: 1(2) (3): 65-240, pl. XXVIII-LXVIII; 1882: 1(4): 241-336, pl. LXIX-XCII; 2 (5) :1-96, pl. XCIII-CXVI; 1883: 2 (6): 97-176, pl. CXVII-CXXXII; 2 (7) :177-272, pl. CXXXIII-CXLVIII; 1884: 2 (8): 273-368, pl. CXLIX-CLXXIX.

Dieuzeide, R.; Novella, M. (collab. J. Roland), 1953-55. Catalogue des Poissons des Côtes algériennes. Bull. Stn Aquic. Pêch. Castiglione, I (n.s.), (4), 1952 [1953]: 1-135, 73 fig. n. num.; II (n.s.), (5), 1953 [1954] :1-258, 135 fig. n. num.; III (n.s.), (6), 1954 [1955] :1-384, 202 fig. n. num.

Döderlein, P.1879-91. Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ed in particolare nei mari di Sicilia. Palermo, 1879-91 (on title: '1879-80') 5 parts: I, 1879: viii+67 p.; II, 1881:1-120; III, 1884 :121-258; IV, 1889 :1-188; V, 1891:189-320.

Duméril, A. H. A.1865. Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale, Paris, 2 vol., 1: 720 p., Atlas: 14 pl.

Duméril, A. H. A.1865. Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale, Paris, 2 vol., 1: 720 p., Atlas: 14 pl.

Ehrenbaum, E. 1936. Naturgeschichte und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Seefische Nordeuropas, in Handbuch der Seefischerei N. Eur., 2: x+337 p., 276 fig., 2 tabl., 26 pl.

Fowler, H. W.1936. The Marine Fishes of West Africa, based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-15. Bull. am. Mus. nat. Hist., 70 (1), Jan. 21, 1936: vii+606 p., fig. 1-275; (2), Nov. 18,1936: 607-1493, fig. 276-567.

Griffini, A. 1903. Ittiologia italiana, Manuali Hoepli, Milano: xii+475 p., 244 fig.

Günther, A.1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 8. Catalogue of the Physostomi containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, Cyclostomata, Leptocardii in the collection of the British Museum. London, xxv+549 p.

Heintz, N. 1962. On Raia batis L., R. nidrosiensis Collett and R. oxyrhynchus (L.) from Norwegian waters and their mutual relationship. Sarsia, 5 :1-67, fig. 1-11.

Jenkins, J. T. 1925. The fishes of the British Isles both fresh water and salt. London: vii+ 376 p., 143 pl.

Le Danois, Ed. 1913a. Contribution à l'étude systématique et biologique des poissons de la Manche Occidentale. Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco, 5 (5) :1-124, 319 fig.

Leigh-Sharpe, W. H. 1924. The comparative morphology of the secondary sexual characters of elasmobranch fishes. The claspers, clasper siphons, and claspr glands. VII. J. Morph., 39 (2): 567-577, fig. 1-15.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, ed. X, vol. 1, 824 p. Nantes & Pisces: 230-338. (Reprint, 1956, London.)

Lozano y Rey, L.1928. Fauna Ibérica. Pesces (Generalidades, Ciclóstomos y Elasmobranquios). Mus. Nac. Ciencias Nat., Madrid, 1:1-692,197 fig., 20 pl.

Möbius, K.; Heincke, F. 1883. Die Fische der Ostsee in Bericht der Comission zur wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere in Kiel. Berlin :1-206, fig., 1 map.

Moreau, E.1881-91. Histoire naturelle des poissons de la France, Paris, I, 1881: I-VII+ 1-480, fig. 1-82; II, 1881:1-572, fig. 83-145; III, 1881:1-697, fig. 146-220; Suppl., 1891: 1-144, fig. 221-227.

Müller, J.; Henle, J.1841. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin, xxii+204 p., 60 pl.

Müller, J.; Henle, J.1841. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin, xxii+204 p., 60 pl.

Muus, B. J.; Dahlström, P. 1965. Meeresfische in Farben, 244 p., 173 numb. and many unnumb. fig.

Parnell, R. 1837b. On Raia intermedia. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 1837 :166.

Poll, M.1947. Poissons marins in Faune de Belgique. Bruxelles, 452 p., 267 fig., 2 pl., 2 maps n. num. (inset).

Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C. S. 1810a. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali (principalmente di pesci) e piante della Sicilia, con varie osservazioni sopra i medisimi. Palermo, 105 p., 20 pl. (Reprint, 1967, Asher-Amsterdam.)

Risso, A.1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes. Paris et Strasbourg, vol. III, XVI+486 p., 16 pl.

Soljan, T. 1963. Fishes of the Adriatic (Ribe Jadrana). Fauna et flora adriatica 1 (revised and enlarged for the English edition), 428 p., many unnumbered fig.

Stehmann, M. 1970. Vergleichend morphologische und anatomische Untersuchungen zur Neuordnung der Systematik der nordostatlantischen Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Arch. FischWiss., 21(2): 73-163,1 fig., pl. 1-27.

Tortonese, E. 1956b. Leptocardia, Ciclostomata, Selachii. Fauna Ital., 2: 334 p., 163 fig.

Valenciennes, A. 1844. In: J. P. Gaimard. Voyage en Islande et au Groenland exécuté pendant les années 1835 et 1836 sur la Corvette 'La Recherche' commandée par M. Tréhouart Lieutenant de Vaisseau dans le but de découvrir les traces de 'La Lilloise', Paris, 1838-52. Atlas zoologique, 22 pl.

Wheeler, A. 1969. The Fishes of the British Isles and North-West Europe. Macmillan, London, Melbourne and Toronto: i-xvii+1-163, 5+177 fig., +392 fig. (princ. sp.)+92 n. num. fig., 16 pl., maps.

Williamson, H. C. 1913. On the eggs of certain skates (Raia). Scient. Invest. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1912 [1913], (1): 1-6, pl. 1-5.

Blue or gray skate (Raja batis)