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Author: Cuvier, 1833

Seriola rivoliana Cuvier, 1833

Diagnosis: end of upper jaw broad. In specimens larger than about 20 cm fork length, total gillrakers (excluding rudiments) 22-26 on first gill arch. Dorsal fin consistently VII (anterior spines may be completely embedded in large fish) + I + 27-33; anal fin II (reduced or embedded in large fish) + I + 18-22; soft anal fin base distinctly shorter than dorsal fin base; in adults, length of dorsal fin lobe about 1.3-1.6 times longer than pectoral fin and 18-22% of fork length. Anterior margin of first pterygiophore of anal fin straight. Caudal peduncle grooves present. Lateral line without scutes. Colour: adults usually brown, olivaceous or bluish-green dorsally, sides and belly lighter, sometimes with brassy or lavender reflections; dark nuchal bar extending from eye to dorsal fin origin often present. Juveniles smaller than about 20 cm fork length, with inter-radial membranes of soft dorsal and anal fins lightly pigmented; juveniles about 8-18 cm fork length with 6 body bars, each with a light narrow irregular area through their centre vertically, not extending onto the membranes of soft dorsal and anal fins, and a seventh bar at end of caudal peduncle. Size: to 97 cm fork length, possibly to 24 kg (length not recorded).

Habitat: adults pelagic and epibenthic, possibly more oceanic than other Seriola species, and rarely found in inshore waters; juveniles pelagic and occurring offshore, under floating plants and debris when small. Food: primarily fishes, also invertebrates. Reproduction: see family.

Distribution: eastern Atlantic distribution not well established; definitely known from Portugal, the Azores and Madeira. Elsewhere, circumtropical in marine waters, entering temperate waters in some areas.

Eggs, larvae and young stages. Nichols, 1946: 259.
Otoliths (sagitta). No data.

Almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana)