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Author: (Linnaeus, 1758)

Lipophrys pholis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Diagnosis: dorsal finrays XII + 18-19; anal finrays II + 19; pectoral finrays 13; pelvic finrays I + 3. Colour: basic coloration brownish with green or yellow spots, dark spots arranged in 5-6 vertical bars on body; 1 large black spot at beginning of dorsal fin. Spawning males dark brown with white upper lip, showing club-like glands at tips of dorsal finrays. Size: to 16 cm; Madeiran specimen (B. bufo) 30 cm.

Habitat: shallow waters of rocky coasts, often in rock-pools, sometimes between algae. Behaviour: mostly active at high tide, preferably in daylight. Vertical plunges from water surface to depths of 6-8 m. Food: small benthic invertebrates, especially gastropods, barnacles and amphipods; also algae. Reproduction: April-August, three spawnings per season; male guards eggs from several females.

Distribution: Mediterranean off southern Spain and the Balearics and Atlantic coasts from southern Norway to Morocco and Madeira.

Eggs, larvae and young stages. De Buen, 1932: 19, fig. 10 | Padoa, 1956: 728-731, fig. 629-632.

Otoliths (sagitta). No data.

Shan (Lipophrys pholis)