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Author: Linnaeus, 1758

Raja (Raja) miraletus Linnaeus, 1758

Diagnosis: upper surface prickly only in young, nearly smooth in adults (except for pattern of thorns); underside smooth. Colour: upper surface ochre to reddish-brown with scattered dark spots; a large circular eyespot on inner centre of each pectoral, its centre light blue, encircled by a dark blue inner and yellow to orange outer ring; underside white. Size: to about 60 cm TL.

Habitat: benthic, from shallow waters to 300 m, mainly 50 150 m; common. Food: all kinds of benthic animals, no preferences. Reproduction: oviparous; egg-cases laid spring to summer, 45-52 by 30-35 mm (excluding horns). Abundance: common; regularly landed along subtropical and tropical coasts, locally in the Mediterranean.

Distribution: Atlantic coasts from Madeira and Morocco northward to northern Portugal; also whole of Mediterranean. Elsewhere, southward to South Africa and south-western part of Indian Ocean.

Complementary iconography. Clark, 1931, in Faune ichthyol. Atl. N., fiche 36 Bini, 1967: 145-146.
Eggs, embryonic and young stages. Capapé & Quignard, 1974: 39, 5 fig.

Brown ray (Raja miraletus)