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Author: (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Mobula moblular (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Diagnosis: teeth in 150-160 vertical series in adults, flanges on the outer margins of adjacent gill-plates not fused together. Base of dorsal fin reaching beyond hind tips of pectoral fins; one or several serrated spines on top of tail behind dorsal fin. Upper surfaces with thornlets in adults; underside more densely covered, as also tail. Colour: upper surfaces dark brown to bluish-black; underside white. Size: to about 5.2 m disc width.

Habitat, etc.: see family.

Distribution: Atlantic coasts from Morocco (also the Azores) northward to northern Spain, also Channel and off south-west Ireland, whole of Mediterranean (but not Black Sea). Elsewhere, southward from the Canaries to Senegal; possibly also western Atlantic (New Jersey and Havana records may be this species).

Eggs, embryonic and young stages. Tortonese, 1957: 45, fig. (embryos) | Capapé & Zaouali, 1976: 1, fig. 1-2 (embryos).

Devil ray (Mobula mobular)