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Developed by ETI BioInformatics

This CD-ROM is the result of our collective (and collegial) efforts (group photo):

Edward Brinton (Research Biologist ) is the principal euphausiid expert behind this expert system. Over the past 4 decades he has contributed to an understanding of the biogeography, vertical migration behavior, sampling problems, taxonomy, and interannual changes in abundance patterns of euphausiids from many regions of the world ocean. [contact at: atownsend@ucsd.edu]

Mark Ohman's (Professor and Curator ) primary research interests concern marine copepods. Here he served as project coordinator and technical advisor. [mohman@ucsd.edu]

Annie Townsend (Museum Scientist ) has many years' experience in the identification of euphausiids. She is recognized as an expert with respect to all life stages of the species. She organized illustrations, data and descriptions presented here. [atownsend@ucsd.edu]

Margaret Knight (Specialist ) has studied the larval development of decapods and euphausiids. She assembled and edited the information and illustrations relating to the larvae of euphausiids. Many of her original illustrations of euphausiid larval stages appear here for the first time. [atownsend@ucsd.edu]

Amy Bridgeman (Graduate Student Researcher ) scanned and converted most of the still illustrations from a printed source to a multimedia format. She modified the illustrations to clarify details and important features.

This digital monograph was developed at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California at San Diego (http://sio.ucsd.edu), which is the oldest and largest oceanographic institution in the United States. Research programs at Scripps span fields from molecular biology to planetary physics, including, of course, the evolutionary ecology of marine organisms. We are pleased to acknowledge financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, through grant DEB-9400770. Specimens and facilities of the Planktonic Invertebrates Collection of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (http://gdcmp1.ucsd.edu/plankton) were used extensively in the development of this monograph.

The authors can be reached at :
Marine Life Research Group 0227
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, California 92093 -0227


We thank Cynthia Claxton of the Classics Department, University off California at Irvine, for assistance with etymologies. Michael Latz of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography filmed euphausiid bioluminescence for this project. Peggy and Bill Hamner of the University of California at Los Angeles kindly provided their remarkable videos of antarctic krill schooling and krill feeding on ice algae. In the initial phase of this project, Andrew Juhl contributed to the scanning of adult euphausiids. Numerous colleagues generously provided illustrations and permission to reproduce illustrations. The source of each illustration is indicated in the lower part of the figure. All other photomicrographs and videos that do not list a specific source have been taken by M.D. Ohman and, along with other illustrations and text, may not be reproduced without specific written permission.

We thank the following publishers and other copyright holders for permission to reproduce illustrations from published work.

Academic Press Inc. (Harcourt Brace)
Mauchline, J., 1967. Feeding appendages of the Euphausiacea (Crustacea). Journal of Zoology 153: 1-43.

Page 5, Fig. 2a; Page 6, Fig. 3b

Mauchline, J. and L. R. Fisher, 1969. The biology of euphausiids. Advances in Marine Biology 7: 1-454.

Page 40, Fig. 9; Page 49, Fig. 14; Page 51, Fig. 15; Page 57, Fig. 17; Page 66, Fig. 21; Page 63, Fig. 20; Page 76, Fig. 25; Page 78, Fig. 26; Page 81, Fig. 27

Akademiya Nauk SSSR
(now Russian Academy of Sciences)
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal
Makarov, R. R., 1979. Early larval stages of antarctic euphausiids (Crustacea, Euphausiacea). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 58: 314-321.

Page 318, Fig. 2, Metanauplius; Page 320, Fig. 3, Metanauplius
Page 321, Fig. 4, Metanauplius; Page 322, Fig 5, Metanauplius

Trudy Instituta okeanologii im. P. P. Shirshova
Pertzova, K. N., 1976. Larvae of Euphausiacea in the Antarctic. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 105: 147-170.

Page 154, Fig. 4 a, a2, b, b1;
Page 157, Fig. 7 a4, b3; Page 156, Fig. 6 a, a1, a4
Page 158, Fig. 8 b, b1, b2; Page 159, Fig. 9 a, a3, b1, b3
Page 160, Fig. 10, a3, bi, b3; Page 164, Fig. 14 a, ai, a3, b, b1, b3;
Page 166, Fig. 16 a, a1 a3, b, b1, b3, b4
Page 167, Fig. 17 a, a1, a3, a4, b, b1, b3
Page 182, Fig. 12, a3, b1, b3; Page 163, Fig. 13a

Biologische Anstalt Helgoland
Weigmann-Haass, R., 1977. Die calyptopis-und furcilia-Stadien von Euphausia hanseni (Crustacea:Euphausiacea). Helgolander wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 29: 315-327.

Page 318, Fig. 2, CI, CII, CIII; Telson FI, FIII, FV-VI-VII
Page 319, Fig. 3, FI, FII, FIII, FIV, FV, FVII
Page 323, Fig. 5, a2, FIII, FVII
Page 325, Fig. 7, carapace FI, FII

Bulletin of Marine Science
Knight, M. D., 1978. Larval development of Euphausia fallax Hansen (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) with a comparison of larval morphology within the E. gibboides species group. Bulletin of Marine Science 28: 255-281.

Page 259, Fig. 3 a, b, c; Page 260, Fig. 4 a, b, c; Page 261, Fig. 5 a, b, c, d, e, f
Page 262, Fig. 6 a, b, c, d; Page 263, Fig. 7 a, b; Page 264, Fig. 8 a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h
Page 266, Fig. 10 d, e, f, g, h, i

Knight, M. D., 1976. Larval development of Euphausia sanzoi Torelli (Crustacea:Euphausiacea). Bulletin of Marine Science 26: 538-557.

Page 542, Fig. 2 a, b, c; Page 543, Fig. 3 a, b, c; Page 545, Fig. 4 a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Page 546, Fig. 5 a, b, c, d; Page 549, Fig. 6 a, b; Page 550, Fig. 7 a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Page 552, Fig. 9 d, e, f, g, h, i

Cahiers de Biologie Marine
Le Roux, A., 1976. Observations sur les larves de Nyctiphanes couchii et de Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) recoltees dans le Golfe du Morbihan. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 17: 375-386.

Page 379, Fig. 1; Page 380, Fig. 2

Crustacean Society, Journal of Crustacean Biology
Brinton, E., 1987. A new abyssal euphausiid, Thysanopoda minyops , with comparisons of eye size, photophores, and associated structures among deep-living species. Journal of Crustacean Biology 7: 636-666.

Page 639, Figs. 1 a, b; Page 641, Figs. 3 a-c; Page 644, Figs. 6 a-d
Page 647, Fig. 8; Page 653, Fig. 12

Brinton, E., and A. W. Townsend, 1984. Regional relationships between development and growth in larvae of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, from field samples. Journal of Crustacean Biology 4: 224-246.

Page 239, Fig. 11

E.J. Brill, Leiden
Brinton, E., 1978. Observation of spermatophores attached to pleopods of preserved male euphausiids. Crustaceana 35: 241-248.

Page 245, Fig. 2c

Menshenina, L. L., 1990. Some correlations of limb development in Euphausia larvae (Euphausiacea). Crustaceana 58: 1-16.

Page 5, Fig. 2 A, C, D, G, H

Elsevier Science (Pergamon Journals Ltd.)
Kampa, E. M., 1965. The euphausiid eye - A re-evaluation. Vision Research 5: 475-481.

Page 477, Figure 4D

Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Gopalakrishnan, K., 1974. Zoogeography of the genus Nematoscelis (Crustacea, Euphausiacea). Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington, D.C. 72: 1039-1074.

Page 1053, Fig. 7 B

Gopalakrishnan, K., 1975. Biology and taxonomy of the genus Nematoscelis (Crustacea, Euphausiacea). Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration. Washington, D.C. 73: 797-814.

Page 805, Fig. 5 a-g; Page 806, Fig. 6 a-f; Page 808, Fig. 7c, Fig. 9 a-e.

Knight, M. D., 1973. The nauplius II, metanauplius, and calyptopis stages of Thysanopoda tricuspidata Milne-Edwards (Euphausiacea). Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington, D.C. 71: 53-67.

Page 56, Fig. 1 c,d; Page 57, Fig. 2 a-c; Page 58, Fig. 3 a-c.

Knight, M. D., 1975. The larval development of Pacific Euphausia gibboides (Euphausiacea). Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington, D.C. 73: 145-168.

Page 149, Fig. 1 c,d; Page 150, Fig. 2 a, b, d, e; Page 152, Fig. 3 a-d
Page 153, Fig. 4 a-f; Page 156, Fig. 5 a, b; Page 158, Fig. 6k;
Page 159, Fig. 7 d, e, f, h, i; Page 164, Fig. 12 a-f

Knight, M. D., 1980. Larval development of Euphausia eximia (Crustacea:Euphausia) with notes on its vertical distribution and morphological divergence between populations. Fishery Bulletin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington, D. C. 78: 313-335.

Page 318, Fig. 2 a-d; Page 319, Fig. 3 a-d; Page 322, Fig. 6 e-j
Page 323, Fig. 7 a-g; Page 324, Fig. 8 a-d; Page 325, Fig. 9 a-c; Page 326, Fig. 10a

Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute
Endo, Y., and K. Komaki, 1979. Larval stages of euphausiids with descriptions of those of Thysanoessa longipes Brandt. Bulletin Japan Sea Regional Fishery Research Laboratory 30: 97-110.

Page 104, Fig. 3 a-d; Page 105, Fig. 4 a-d; Fig. 5 a-c
Page 106, Fig. 6 a-c; Fig. 7 a-c; Fig. 8 a-c
Page 107, Fig. 9 a-c; Fig. 10 a-d; Page 108, Fig. 11 a-d

Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan
(current title: Journal of Oceanography)
Nemoto, T., 1963. A new species of Euphausiacea, Thysanoessa inspinata, from the North Pacific. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan 19: 41-47.

Page 42, Fig. 2a

Hirota, Y., T. Nemoto and R. Marumo, 1984. Larval development of Euphausia similis (Crustacea, Euphausiacea) in Sagami Bay, Central Japan. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan 40: 57-66.

Page 58, Fig. 1; Page 59, Fig. 2 d; Page 60, Fig. 3 a, b, c, d, e
Page 61, Fig. 4 a, b, c, d, e, f; Page 62, Fig. 5 a, b, c, d, e, f; Page 63, Fig. 7 e, f
Page 64, Fig. 9 d, e, f, g, h, i

Journal of the Marine Biology Association of India
Mathew, K. J., 1972. Studies on the larval stages of Euphausiacea from Indian Seas. 2. Description of post-naupliar stages of Stylocheiron carinatum G.O. Sars. Journal of the marine Biological Association of India 14: 795-804.

Page 796, Fig. 1 a, b, f, g, h, k, m, n, q, r
Page 798, Fig. 2 a, b, e, f, g, h, j, k, l, 0
Page 800, Fig. 3 a, c, e, f, g, j, m, n, o, r, q, u, v

Mathew, K. J., 1975. Studies on the larval history of two species of euphausiacea from the Indian Seas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 17: 1-16.

Page 7, Fig. 6 a, b, j, k; Page 9, Fig. 7 a, b, h, j, k, r , Fig. 8 a, b, h, p, q
Page 10, Fig. 9 a, b, h, i, l, q, r

Mathew, K. J., 1980b. Taxonomic status of Stylocheiron armatum Colosi 1917 (Crustacea:Euphausiacea)-a critical evaluation. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 22: 50-56.

Page 4, Fig. 1e, 1l

Mathew, K. J., 1983. Studies on larval euphausiids from the southwest coast of India with notes on their developmental pathways and breeding seasons. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 25: 51-70.

Page 56, Fig. 4 ; Page 57, Fig. 5; Page 59, Fig. 8; Page 60, Fig. 9

National Institute of Polar Research
Ikeda, T., 1986. Preliminary observations on the development of the larvae of Euphausia crystallorophias Holt and Tattersall in the laboratory. Memoirs of the National Institute of Polar Research, Special Issue 40: 183-186.

Page 185, Fig. 1a

NRC Research Press
Canadian Government Publishing Centre
Kathman, R. D., Austin, W. C., Saltman, J. C. and Fulton, J. D., 1986. Identification manual to the Mysidacea and Euphausiacea of the Northeast Pacific. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 93: 247-411.

Page 331, Fig. b, c; Page 335, Fig. b, c, d; Page 339, Fig. a, c, d; Page 343, Fig. b, c, d

By courtesy of The Natural History Museum, London
Baker, A. de C., Boden, B.P., and Brinton, E. 1990. A practical guide to the euphausiids of the world. Cromwell Road, London: British Museum (Natural History). 96 pp.

Page 15, plate 1 E; Page 17, plate 2, Fig. 2a(iii), 2b, 2c;
Page 31, plate 9, Fig. 4b(ii)
Page 33, plate 10, Fig. 7a(iii), 7b(ii), Fig. 8a(i), 8a(v), 8b(i)
Page 39, plate 13, Fig. 2b(i), Fig. 3b(i), 3b(iii)
Page 41, plate 14, Fig. 4a(iii), 4a(v), 4b(i), Fig. 5a(iii)
Page 43, plate 15, Fig. 6b(i), 6b(iii), Fig. 7a(i), 7b(i)
Page 45, plate 16, Fig. 1b(i), 1b(ii)
Page 47, plate 17, Figs. 3b(i), 3b(ii), 3b(iii)
Page 49, plate 18, Figs. 4b(i), 4b(ii)
Page 53, plate 20, Fig. 9b(i), 9b(iii), Fig. 11a(i), 11a(ii), 11b(i)
Page 55, plate 21, Figs. 12a(i), 12a(ii), 12b
Page 57, plate 22, Fig. 15a(ii), Fig. 16(i)
Page 61, plate 24, Fig. 19a(iii); Page 63, plate 25, Fig. 21c(iii)
Page 67, plate 27, Fig. 24a(iv), 24b(iv)
Page 73, plate 30, Fig. 7a(ii), 7b(ii); Page 77, plate 32, Fig. 2a(i)

University of Bergen
Fevolden, S.E. 1980. Krill off Bouvetöya in the southern Weddell Sea, with a description of larval stages of Euphausia crystallorophias . Sarsia, 65: 149-162.

Page 158, Fig. 8 B, C, D; Page 159, Fig. 8 E, F

Scientific and Industrial Research Publishing Unit of The Royal Society of New Zealand Science House
Fenwick, G.D. 1978. Plankton swarms and their predators at the Snares Islands (Note). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 12: 223-4.

Page 224, Fig. 1

Springer-Verlag Gmb H & Company KG
Guglielmo, L., T. Antezana, N. Crescenti, and A. Granata. 1997. Euphausiids, Systematic Account. In: L. Guglielmo and A. Ianora (eds), Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellum, Amphipods, Euphausiids, Mysids, Ostracods, and Chaetognaths. Springer Verlag, Berlin: 87-130.

Page 108, Figs. 4.42A, C; Page 114, 4.5.2C; Page 120, 4.6.2A, C

Hirota, Y., T. Nemoto and R. Marumo. 1984. Larval development of Euphausia nana (Crustacea, Euphausiacea). Marine Biology 81: 311-322.

Page 312, Fig. 1 d; Page 313, Fig. 2 a, b, c, d, e
Page 314, Fig. 3 a, b, c, d, e, f; Page 315, Fig. 4 a, b, c, d, e, f
Page 316, Fig. 5 m, n, o; Page 318, Fig. 7 e, f, g; Page 319, Fig. 8

George, R.Y., and J.-O. Strömberg. 1985. Development of eggs of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba in relation to pressure. Polar Biology, 4: 125-133.

Page 127, Fig. 1

Lindley, J. A., and R. Williams. 1980. Plankton of the Fladen Ground during FLEX 76 II. Population dynamics and production of Thysanoessa inermis (Crustacea:Euphausiacea). Marine Biology, 57: 79-86.

Page 81, Fig. 2

The Chinese Society of Oceanology and Limnology
Wang, R. 1963. Description of a new species of the genus Pseudeuphausia (Crustacea) Pseudeuphausia sinica sp. nov., Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 5: 356-359.

P. sinica , plate 1, Fig. 5; P. sinica & P. latifrons , plate I, Figs. 3, 10

Wang, R. 1965. On the larval stages of Pseudeuphausia sinica Wang and Chen (Euphausiacea). Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 7: 35-53.

plate I, Metanauplius, Figs. 3-4; First protozoea, Figs. 9, 10, 11
plate II, Second protozoea, Figs 1, 2, 4; Third protozoea, Figs. 6-7
plate III, First zoea, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4; Second zoea, form 3, Figs. 11, 13
plate IV, Second zoea, Fig. 1; Third zoea, Figs. 2, 3
Fourth zoea, Figs. 12, 13, 14; plate V, First postlarva, Fig. 2

The Plankton Society of Japan
Endo, Y. 1980. Larval stages of a euphausiid Tessarabrachion oculatum Hansen. Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan 27: 113-122.

Page 115, Figs. 1, 2, 3; Page 116, Fig. 4; Page 117, Figs. 5, 6
Page 118, Figs. 7, 8; Page 119, Fig. 9

Kikuchi, T. and T. Nemoto. 1985. New record of a rare giant bathypelagic euphausiid Thysanopoda spinicaudata from the western North Pacific. Bulletin of the Plankton Society of Japan, 32: 37-42.

Page 38, Figure 1.

Komaki, Yuzo. 1967. On the early metamorphosis of Nematoscelis difficilis Hansen (Euphausiacea:Crustacea). Information Bulletin on Planktology in Japan, Commemoration Number of Dr. Y. Matsue, pp. 101-108.

Page 103, Fig. 1 A, B

University of California Press
Gopalakrishnan, K. 1973. Development and growth studies of the euphausiid Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea) based on rearing. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California 20: 1-87.

Page 43, plate 1 a,b; Page 45, plate 2 a,b; Page 47, plate 3 b,c
Page 49, plate 4 a,b; Page 51, plate 5 a,b; Page 53, plate 6
Page 55, plate 7; Page 59, plate 9 a,b,c; Page 79, plate 19 a,b,c

Zoological Society of Southern Africa
Zoologica Africana (current title: South African Journal of Zoology)
Talbot, M.S. 1974. Distribution of euphausiid crustaceans from the Agulhas Current. Zoologica Africana, 9: 93-145.

Page 113, Fig. 5 e, f

Disserations and Theses

Bernadette Casanova (1974)
Les euphausiacés de Méditerranée (Systématique et développement larvaire. Biogéographie et Biologie). L'Université de Provence, Aix-Marseille I, Docteur Es-sciences Naturelles, 380 p.

Selected figures.

Patricia Louise Summers (1993)
Life history, growth and aging inThysanoessa spinifera. University of Victoria, Master of Science, 144 p.

Selected figures.