Prorocentrum ruetzlerianum Faust, 1990b
Prorocentrum ruetzlerianum is an armoured, marine, benthic dinoflagellate species. This species is associated with floating detritus and sediment in tropical embayments of the Caribbean Sea.
P. ruetzlerianum is a bivalvate species often observed in valve view. Cells are round to ovoid with an average diameter of 28-35 µm. Valve centers are slightly concave (Figs. 1,3,4). The entire valve surface is deeply areolate; the areolae are ovate to pentagonal deep depressions (Figs. 1-4). Each areola houses a central round pore (1 µm diameter) (Fig. 3). Approximately 500-550 areolae are present on each theca, along with 70-80 evenly spaced marginal areolae. The intercalary band is broad and transversely rugose with long sinuous rugae (Figs. 3,4); viewed with LM, the valve margins have a distinct striated pattern (Figs. 5-7). This type of intercalary band is unique to this species (Faust, 1990b).
The periflagellar area is relatively small, without ornamentation, and set into a shallow, V-shaped depression on the right valve (Figs. 2,3). The flagellar pore is much larger than the auxiliary pore (Fig. 2) (Faust, 1990b).
Morphology and Structure:
Prorocentrum ruetzlerianum is a photosynthetic species with golden chloroplasts, a centrally located pyrenoid (Figs. 5,6), and a posterior nucleus (Faust, 1990b).
Prorocentrum ruetzlerianum reproduces asexually by binary fission.
There are several deeply areolated Prorocentrum species all with varying amounts of areolae per valve: P. hoffmannianum has approximately 670 round to oval areolae per valve (1.1 µm diameter) (Faust, 1990b); P. belizeanum has about 853-1024 round to oval areolae per valve (0.73 µm diameter) (Faust, 1993a); P. sabulosum has about 391 round to oval areolae per valve (1.3 µm diameter) (Faust, 1994); and P. ruetzlerianum has about 550 pentagonal-shaped areolae per valve (1.0 µm diameter) (Faust, 1990b).
P. ruetzlerianum is a benthic species associated with floating detritus and sediment. This is not a common species and is often in low numbers when present. Cells are motile or attach to detrital particles (Faust, 1990b).
Quod (pers. com.) has shown that this species is a toxin producer; however, the toxin principals have yet to be determined.
Habitat and Locality:
Populations of P. ruetzlerianum are often associated with floating detritus and sediments in tropical coastal regions of the Caribbean Sea (Faust, 1990b).