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Blackburn, S.I., G.M. Hallegraeff and C.J. Bolch 1989. Vegetative reproduction and sexual life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from Tasmania, Australia. J. Phycol. 25: 577-590.

Estrada, M., F.J. Sanchez and S. Fraga 1984. Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham) en las rias gallegas (NO de Espana), Inv. Pesq. 48: 31-40.

Fraga, S., I. Bravo, M. Delgado, J.M. Franco and M. Zapata 1995. Gyrodinium impudicum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a non toxic, chain-forming, red tide dinoflagellate. Phycologia 34: 514-521.

Franca, S. and J.F. Almeida 1989. Paralytic shellfish poisons in bivalve molluscs on the Portuguese coast caused by a bloom of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. In: T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson and T. Nemoto (eds), Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Science and Toxicology, Elsevier, New York: 93-96.

Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara and K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.

Fukuyo, Y., M. Kodama, T. Ogata, T. Ishimaru, K. Matsuoka, T. Okaichi, A.M. Maala and J.A. Ordones 1993. Occurrence of Gymnodinium catenatum in Manila Bay, the Philippines. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 875-880.

Giacobbe, M.G., F. Oliva, R. La Ferla, A. Puglisi, E. Crisafi and G. Maimone 1995. Potentially toxic dinoflagellates in Mediterranean waters (Sicily) and related hydrobiological conditions. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 9: 3-68.

Graham, H.W. 1943. Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California. Tans. Am. Micr. Soc. 62: 259-261.

Hallegraeff, G.M. and C.J. Bolch 1991. Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ships' ballast water. Mar. Poll. Bull. 22: 27-30.

Hallegraeff, G.M., D.A. Steffensen and R. Wetherbee 1988. Three estuarine Australian dinoflagellates that can produce paralytic shellfish poisons. J. Plank. Res. 10: 533-541.

Hallegraeff, G.M., S.O. Stanley, C.J. Bolch and S. Blackburn 1989. Gymnodinium catenatum blooms and shellfish toxicity in southern Tasmania, Australia. In: T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson and T. Nemoto (eds), Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Science and Toxicology, Elsevier, New York: 77-80.

Hallegraeff, G.M. 1991. Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.

Ikeda, T., S. Matsuno, S. Sato, T. Ogata, M. Kodama, Y. Fukuyo and H. Takayama 1989. First report on paralytic shellfish poisoning caused by Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Dinophyceae) in Japan. In: T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson and T. Nemoto (eds), Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Sciences and Toxicology, Elsevier, New York: 411-414.

La Barbera-Sanchez, A., S. Hall and E. Ferraz-Reyes 1993. Alexandrium sp., Gymnodinium catenatum and PSP in Venezuela. In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 281-285.

Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1989. Guide to Toxic and Potentially Toxic Marine Algae. The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, Copenhagen. 61 pp.

Mee, L.D., M. Espinosa and G. Diaz 1986. Paralytic shellfish poisoning with a Gymnodinium catenatum red tide on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mar. Environ. Res. 19: 77-92.

Morey-Gaines, G. 1982. Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Dinophyceae): morphology and affinities with armoured forms. Phycologia 21: 154-163.

Steidinger, K.A. and K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.

Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.

Yuki, K. and S. Yoshimatsu 1987. Morphology of the athecate dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum in culture. Bull. Plank. Soc. Jpn. 34: 109-117.

Gymnodinium catenatum