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Balech, E. and K. Tangen 1985. Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae): Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii comb. nov. Sarsia 70: 333-343.

Balech, E. 1971b. Microplancton del Atlantico Ecuatorial Oeste (Equalant I). Servicio de Hidrografia Nava, Buenos Aries H 654: 1-103.

Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.

Braarud, T. 1945. Morphological observations on marine dinoflagellate cultures (Porella perforata, Goniaulax tamarensis, Protoceratium reticulatum). Avh. Utgitt. Nor. Vidensk. Akad. Oslo Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl. 11: 1-18.

Cembella, A.D., J.J. Sullivan, G.L. Boyer, F.J.R. Taylor and R.J. Anderson 1987. Variation in paralytic shellfish toxin composition within the Protogonyaulax tamarensis/catenella species complex; red tide dinoflagellates. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 15: 171-186.

Cembella, A.D., J.-C. Therriault and P. Beland 1988. Toxicity of cultured isolates and natural populations of Protogonyaulax tamarensis from the St. Lawrence estuary. J. Shellfish Res. 7: 611-621.

Cembella, A.D., N.I. Lewis and M.A. Quilliam 2000. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. Phycologia 39: 67-74.

Dodge, J.D. 1981. Three new generic names in the Dinophyceae: Heteraulacus, Sclerodinium, and Triadinium to replace Heteraulacus and Goniodoma. Brit. Phycol. J. 16: 273-280.

Fraga, S. and F.J. Sanchez 1985. Toxic and potentially toxic dinoflagellates in Galician Rias (NW Spain). In: D. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 51-55.

Hansen, P.J., A.D. Cembella and O. Moestrup 1992. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: Paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition, and toxicity to a tintinnid ciliate. J. Phycol. 28: 597-603.

Jensen, M. and O. Moestrup 1997. Autecology of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: life history and growth at different temperatures and salinities. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 9-18.

Konovalova, G.V. 1993. Toxic and potentially toxic dinoflagellates from the far east coastal waters of Russia. In: Smayda, T.J. and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 275-279.

Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1989. Guide to Toxic and Potentially Toxic Marine Algae. The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, Copenhagen. 61 pp.

Levasseur, M., L. Berard-Therriault, E. Bonneau and S. Roy 1998. Distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In: Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez and T. Wyatt (eds), Harmful Algae, Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Spain: 54-57.

Loeblich III, A.R. and L.A. Loeblich 1979. The systematics of Gonyaulax with special reference to the toxic species. In: Taylor, D.L. and H.H. Seliger (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier / North Holland, New York: 41-46.

Loeblich, A.R. III 1970. The amphiesma or dinoflagellate cell covering. Proc. N. Am. Paleont. Conv. 1969. G: 867-929.

Mackenzie, L., D. White, Y. Ohima and J. Kapa 1996. The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. Phycologia: 35: 148-155.

Moestrup, O. and P.J. Hansen 1988. On the occurrence of the potentially toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense (= Gonyaulax excavata) and A. ostenfeldii in Danish and Faroese waters. Ophelia 28: 195-213.

Parke, M. and J.D. Dodge 1976. Dinophyta, In: M. Parke and P.S. Dixon (eds), Check-list of British Marine Algae-Third Revision. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 56: 542-551.

Paulsen, O. 1904. Plankton-investigations in the waters around Iceland in 1903. Medd. Kommn. Havunders. Kcbenh. Ser. Plankton 1: 1-40.

Steidinger, K.A. and K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.

Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.

Taylor, F.J.R. 1979b. The toxigenic gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, D.L. and H.H. Seliger (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier / North-Holland, New York: 47-56.

Woloszynska, J. and W. Conrad 1939. Pyrodinium phoneus n. sp., agent de la toxicite des moules du canal maritime de Bruges a Zeebruge. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. 15: 1-5.

Alexandrium ostenfeldii