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Balech, E. 1985b. The genus Alexandrium or Gonyaulax of the tamarensis group. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 33-38.

Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.

Prakash, A. and F.J.R. 1966. A 'red water' bloom of Gonyaulax acatenella in the Strait of Georgia and its relation to paralytic shellfish toxicity. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 23: 1265-1270.

Steidinger, K.A. and K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.

Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.

Taylor, F.J.R. 1979b. The toxigenic gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, D.L. and H.H. Seliger (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier / North-Holland, New York: 47-56.

Whedon, W.F. and C.A. Kofoid 1936. Dinoflagellata of the San Diego region. I. On the skeletal morphology of two new species, Gonyaulax catenella and G. acatenella. Univ. Calf. Publ. Zool. 41: 25-31.

Alexandrium acatenella