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Guinot, D., 1966. Recherches préliminaires sur les groupements naturels chez les Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures. I. Les affinités des genres Aethra, Osachila, Hepatus, Hepatella et Actaeomorpha. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, (2) 38(5): 744-762, figs 1-24.

Manning, R.B. & L.B. Holthuis, 1981. West African Brachyuran Crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda). Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology, 306: i-xii, 1-379, figs 1-88.

Miyake, S., 1983. Japanese Crustacean Decapods and Stomatopods in color. Vol. II. Brachyura (Crabs), i-viii, 1-277, pls 1-64. Hoikusha, Osaka. (In Japanese; second edition in 1992)

Sakai, T., 1963a. Description of two new genera and fourteen new species of the Japanese crabs from the collection of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan. Crustaceana, 5(3): 213-233, figs 1-8.

Sakai, T., 1965b. The Crabs of Sagami Bay, collected by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, i-xvi, 1-206 (English text), figs 1-27, pls 1-100: 1-92 (Japanese text): 1-26 (references and index in English): 27-32 (index in Japanese), 1 map. Maruzen Co., Tokyo.

Sakai, T., 1976a. Crabs of Japan and the Adjacent Seas. (In 3 volumes: (1) English text: i-xxix, 1-773, figs 1-379, (2) Plates volume: 1-16, pls 1-251, (3) Japanese text: 1-461, figs 1-2, 3 maps.) Kodansha Ltd, Tokyo.

Sakaila imperialis