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(Latreille, 1825)

The carapace elongate triangular, the dorsal surface depressed but the gastric and cardiac regions sensibly convex, the former being mounted with three tubercles, and the latter with one. The intestinal region little convex and is mounted with a tubercle in the middle. The hepatic region produced laterally into a tooth, which sometimes has an accessory denticle on the anterior slope. The branchial region has usually two teeth on the lateral border and one or two tubercles on the dorsal surface; there is also a small tooth on either side of the posterior border.
The pseudorostrum of male is very long, slender, horizontal and somewhat deflexed, the tip being more or less bifurcated; in the female however, it is usually shorter. The preocular tooth is very prominent but the eyes are non-retractile, the orbits being non-protected. The basal segment of antenna is broad at base, armed with a distal tooth at the external angle; the flagellum very long and exceeds the tip of the pseudorostrum. The merus of the external maxillipeds is produced at the antero-external angle.
Chelipeds of male are longer than any of the ambulatory legs, the arm is mounted with a few tubercles on the upper border near the base and with three obscure teeth near the distal end; the palm laterally compressed and the upper and lower borders rounded. The fingers widely gape at base, the movable finger with a stout tooth near the base. Merus of the ambulatory legs has a few tubercles, which are usually haired, on the anterior border; the dactylus is spinulated along the posterior border.
Abdomen of male consists of seven distinct segments, that of female of five segments. (Sakai, 1938: 263)

Type locality: unknown.
Range: Red Sea - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez, and Dahlak Archipelago (Griffin & Tranter, 1974); Zanzibar (Lenz, 1905); Mozambique Island and Delagoa Bay (Barnard, 1950); South Africa - Zululand (Barnard, 1950); Madagascar - Tuléar and Nosy Bé (Griffin, 1974), Diégo-Suarez Bay (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Mauritius (Michel, 1964, Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Seychelles (Rathbun, 1911), Amirante (Griffin, 1974); Saya de Malha Bank (Rathbun, 1911); Cargados Carajos (Rathbun, 1911); Chagos Archipelago (Rathbun, 1911); Persian Gulf - (Stephensen, 1945), Abu Dhabi (Cooper, 1997); Pakistan - Jiwani and Karachi (Tirmizi & Kazmi, 1991); India - Okha (Chhapgar, 1957), Pamban Pass (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Andaman Islands (Alcock, 1895a); Nicobar Islands (Alcock, 1895a); west of Sumatra - Simalur (Griffin, 1974); Cocos Island (Tweedie, 1950b, Griffin, 1974); Japan - Shimoda (Sakai, 1935), Tateyama Bay, Shimoda, Nanki shirahama, Gobo and Nagasaki (Sakai, 1938a), Hachijo-jima (Sakai, 1954), Sagami Bay (Sakai, 1965b), Tokyo Bay, Sagami Bay, Shimoda, Wagu, Kii Nagashima, Kushimoto, Shiono-misaki, Kii Minabe, Sakaihama, Yoron, and Ishigaki-jima (Sakai, 1976a), Amakusa (Yamaguchi et al., 1976), Mage-jima, Kagoshima Pref. (Takeda, 1977), Kushimoto (Miyake, 1983), Kakeroma-jima near Amami-Oshima (Takeda, 1989), Hachijo-jima, Manazuru, Nanki Shirahama, Tosashimizu, and Yoron-jima (Muraoka, 1998), Ginowan, Okinawa-jima (Shokita et al., 2000); Korea - Cheju-do (Kim & Chang, 1985); Taiwan (Lin, 1949); China - Hong Kong (Stimpson, 1907), Paracel Island (Dai et al., 1978, Chen, 1980), Hainan Island and Paracel Islands (Dai & Yang, 1991); Philippines - Puerto Galero, Mindoro (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Sulu Archipelago - (Dana, 1852), Marongas Sound (Griffin, 1976); Palau (Takeda, 1973); Indonesia - Edam Island and Ambon (de Man, 1887d), Paternoster Islands, Postillon Islands, Pulu Barang, Great Sangir Island, Karakelong Islands, Salibabu Island, Damar Island, between Gisser Island and Seram Laut, Seram, Banda Sea, Ambon, Banda, Savu Sea, north Timor, Tanimbar, west coast of Salawati, off Atjatuning, Biak Island, north of Jayapura, Padaido Group and Supiori Island, Irian Jaya (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); New Britain (Takeda & Nunomura, 1976); Australia - Cape York (Miers, 1886), Shark Bay, Rottnest Island and Barrow Island, W.A. (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a), Heron Island, Queensland (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a), Port Jackson (Griffin, 1972); Lord Howe Island (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); New Caledonia - Nouméa, Ilot Maitre, Nepoui, and Poum (Takeda & Nunomura, 1976), Nouméa Harbour (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Fiji (Dana, 1852, Griffin, 1974); Samoa (Dana, 1852); Tonga - (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a), Tongatabu (Miers, 1886); Hawaiian Islands - Lahaina (Dana, 1852), Laysan, French Frigate Shoal, Modu Manu, Honolulu, and Maui (Rathbun, 1906), Hilo and Waikiki (Griffin & Tranter, 1986a); Line Islands - Tabuaeran (Edmondson, 1923); Tahiti (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Tuamotu Archipelago (Dana, 1852, Nobili, 1907, Rathbun, 1907); intertidal to 57 m.

Menaethius monoceros