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(Fabricius, 1793)

Carapace about 1.4 times as broad as long, convex in the anterior half and depressed in the posterior half. Surface thickly covered with dark brown setae of various lengths, those near the margins being longer; regions well demarcated on denudation, each region covered with a patch of granules, interspersed with short setae between the regions; Front deflected, its breadth less than one-third the breadth of the carapace, and cut into 2 lobes by a median notch, each with a distinct and prominent extero-lateral angle. Orbit small, dorsal margin bearing 2 notches. Antero-lateral margin slightly shorter than the postero-lateral one, and armed with 3 teeth, excluding the outerorbital tooth: the first one triangular, the second one sharper, and the third one the sharpest. Postero-lateral margin slightly longer than the antero-lateral one, straight and more or less forming a facet.
Chelipeds asymmetrical, with long setae. Merus covered with granules and short pubescence on the outer surface. Carpus sharp at the inner-distal angle. Palm devoid of hairs but bearing beaded granules in the lower half of the outer surface. Fingers black, with irregular obtuse teeth along the cutting edge. Ambulatory legs depressed and covered with long setae. Dactylus with a cuticular claw.
First pleopod of the male slender and long, arched ventrally in the middle and with a hook-shaped apex. Male abdomen 7-segmented. Telson bluntly triangular. Carapace length of the male 18-25.5 mm, breadth 25.5-30.8 mm; of the female, length 18.1 mm, breadth 25 mm. (Dai & Yang, 1991)

Type locality: India.
Range: Red Sea (Kossmann, 1877, Ortmann, 1893, Nobili, 1906, Klunzinger, 1913, Balss, 1924a, Guinot, 1964b); Zanzibar (Lenz, 1905, Guinot, 1962a); Tanzania - Dar es Salaam (Ortmann, 1894); Mozambique - Ibo and Mozambique (Hilgendorf, 1879), Delagoa Bay (Barnard, 1950); Seychelles (Richters, 1880, Miers, 1884a); Mayotte (Guinot, 1958); Madagascar - Nosy Bé (Lenz & Richters, 1881); Mauritius (Miers, 1884a, Bouvier, 1915b, Michel, 1964); India - (Fabricius, 1793), Rameswaram and Tuticorin (Henderson, 1893), Gulf of Mannar (Gravely, 1927), Palk Strait (Alcock, 1898), Bombay and Okha (Chhapgar, 1957); Maldives (Borradaile, 1902b); Andaman Islands (Alcock, 1898, Sankarankutty, 1962); Mergui Archipelago (de Man, 1887b, Alcock, 1898); Malay Peninsula - Pinang and Kelantan (Lanchester, 1902); Japan - Okinawa and Amami-Oshima (Stimpson, 1907), Okinawa-jima (Parisi, 1916), Ishigaki-jima (Balss, 1922c, Miyake, 1983), Kagoshima (Balss, 1933b), Omae-zaki (Yokoya, 1933), Amakusa and Nagasaki (Sakai, 1934a), Susaki near Shimoda, Seto Kanayama, Nagasaki and Okinawa (Sakai, 1939), Hachijo-jima (Sakai, 1954), Sagami Bay (Sakai, 1965b), Kii Peninsula (Takeda & Miyake, 1968a), Amakusa, Nagasaki, Amami-Oshima, Tokuno-shima, Okinawa-jima and Iriomote-jima (Takeda & Miyake, 1968a), from Sagami Bay to Okinawa (Sakai, 1976a), Ginowan, Okinawa (Shokita et al., 2000); Taiwan; China - Paracel Island (Chen & Lan, 1978), Hainan Island and Paracel Islands (Dai & Yang, 1991); Gulf of Thailand (Rathbun, 1910a); Singapore (Walker, 1890b, Nobili, 1903c, Rathbun, 1910a); Philippines - Siquijor Island (Miers, 1884a); Palau (Ortmann, 1893, Miyake, 1939, Takeda & Miyake, 1968a); Indonesia - Java (Miers, 1880a), Timor Laut (Miers, 1884a), Edam Island (de Man, 1888d), Pontianak and Sulawesi (de Man, 1895a), Ambon (Zehntner, 1894, Gordon, 1934), Gaspar Strait (Stimpson, 1907); New Guinea (Ortmann, 1893); Caroline Islands - Truk (Parisi, 1916), Yap and Ponape (Balss, 1933b); Australia - Nickol Bay (Miers, 1884a), Barrow Island, W.A. (Balss, 1933b), Dundas Strait and West Island, Northern Territory (Miers, 1884a), Prince of Wales Channel, Thursday Island, Sir C. Hardy Island, Claremont and Cumberland Island, Queensland (Miers, 1884a), Sydney (Balss, 1933b); New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago (Balss, 1933b); Solomon Islands - Bougainville (Balss, 1933b); Vanuatu (Miers, 1884a); New Caledonia (A. Milne Edwards, 1873, Ortmann, 1893, Takeda & Nunomura, 1976); Fiji (Miers, 1884a, Edmondson, 1935); Samoa (Dana, 1852, Miers, 1884a); Tongatabu (Dana, 1852, Edmondson, 1935); Hawaiian Islands - Oahu (Rathbun, 1906, Edmondson, 1935); New Zealand (Miers, 1884a).

Pilumnus vespertilio