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(Dana, 1852)

Carapace less than 1.5 times as broad as long. Surface convex, well areolated by shallow grooves; 2P covered with fine granules and scattered pits, with a pair of carinae, but on the cardiac region and the space near it the pits are denser. Front convex, cut into 2 lobes by a shallow median notch, each lobe with the lateral portion obtuse dentiform. Orbit convex; dorsal margin with 2 fissures, inner angle bluntly round, outer angle tubercular. Antero-lateral margin with 4 obtuse teeth except for the outerorbital angle; first and fourth teeth smaller, second and third teeth larger. Postero-lateral margin shorter than the antero-lateral one. Posterior margin narrow. Antennal flagellum standing in orbital hiatus. Merus of third maxillipeds concave on the anterior margin, outer-distal angle rather produced.
Chelipeds asymmetrical. Merus thickly covered with coarse beaded granules, and armed with 4-5 obtuse teeth along the anterior margin, and 4-5 tubercles along the posterior margin. Carpus covered with fine granules. Palm smoother, but with blunt tubercles. Fingers smooth and stout; inner edges bearing 3 teeth in the major one, 2 in the minor one. Ambulatory legs thickly covered with spiniform granules in the merus, carpus and propodus and armed with rows of spines and sparse setae on the anterior margin and the dorsal surface of the carpus, propodus and dactylus; the latter with a biclaw-shaped tip.
First pleopod of the male with distal end curved upwards, spoon-shaped. The sixth segment of the male abdomen subtrapezoidal, about as long as basal margin; telson coniform, as long as the sixth segment. Carapace length of the male 19.9 mm, breadth 28.9 mm; of the female, length 16.1 mm, breadth 22.4 mm. (Dai & Yang, 1991)

Type locality: Fiji.
Range: Red Sea (Nobili, 1906); Gulf of Aden - Obock and Djibouti (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Kenya - Mombasa (Serène, 1984); Zanzibar (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Delagoa Bay (Barnard, 1947, 1950); Ile Europa (Serène, 1984); Mayotte (Guinot, 1958); Madagascar - (Forest & Guinot, 1961), Tamatave and Tuléar (Serène, 1984); Réunion (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Mauritius (Alcock, 1898, Bouvier, 1915b, Michel, 1964, Forest & Guinot, 1961); India; Maldives (Borradaile, 1902b); Andaman Islands (Alcock, 1898); Nicobar Islands (Alcock, 1898); Cocos Islands (Tweedie, 1950b); Japan - Okinawa and Ogasawara-shoto (Stimpson, 1858a, 1907), Okinawa-shoto (Forest & Guinot, 1961); China - Paracel Island (Chen & Lan, 1978), Hainan Island and Paracel Islands (Dai & Yang, 1991); Philippines - Zamboanga (Miers, 1886), Marongas Island and Makassar Island (Garth & Kim, 1983); Balabac Passage (Dana, 1852); Indonesia - Java Sea; Australia (Alcock, 1898); New Caledonia - (Forest & Guinot, 1961), Ilot Maitre, Ile des Pins, and Poum (Takeda & Nunomura, 1976); Gilbert Islands - (Rathbun, 1907, Holthuis, 1953), Aranuka (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Funafuti and Rotuma (Borradaile, 1900); Fiji (Dana, 1852); Samoa - Upolu (Dana, 1852, Forest & Guinot, 1961); Tongatabu (Forest & Guinot, 1961); Hawaiian Islands - Hilo, southcoast of Molokai, Honolulu, and Oahu (Rathbun, 1906); Tahiti (Dana, 1852, Stimpson, 1858a, 1907, Forest & Guinot, 1961); Tuamotu Archipelago - (Nobili, 1907, Rathbun, 1907), Marutea and Fakahina (Forest & Guinot, 1961).

Phymodius monticulosus