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Authors:

Rob van Soest
Institute for Systematics and Ecology (Zoological Museum), University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94766, 1090 GT Amsterdam
e-mail: R.W.M.vanSoest@uva.nl
fax: +31-20-525-5402
phone: +31-20-525-6901

Bernard Picton
Zoology Department, National Museums of Northern Ireland, Holywood, BT180EU
Northern Ireland, UK.
e-mail: bernard.picton@nmni.com
fax: + 44-28-90395003
phone: + 44-28-90395266
Web page: http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/

Christine Morrow
Medical Biology Centre, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University, 97 Lisburn Road,Belfast, BT9 7BL,
Northern Ireland, UK.
e-mail: christinemorrow@gmail.com
phone:  +44-28-90975787

Major contributors:

Clare Valentine and her volunteer workers Eiry Jagger,
Veena Mistry & Alex Ward generously contributed
with detailed information on primary type specimens in the
Natural History Museum, London
Shirley Stone was the sponge taxonomist of MCS Sponge Guides
I-IV and many of her observations and notes entered the
present guide through this
Graham Ackers was the first editor of the MCS Sponge Guides
and through this contributed to the present guide
David Moss was one of the editors of the MCS Sponge Guides
and through this contributed to the present guide
Kate Smith : contributed with many photos, helped with the
glossary, and provided advice
Mario de Kluijver : contributed with many photos
Wallie de Weerdt : contributed with photos and text
Jan Vermeulen : contributed with scanwork
Cristina Díaz : contributed with photos, drawings, advice
Freerk Hiemstra : contributed with drawings, SEM photos

Individual MCS photos/illustrations used in this guide
form an indispensable tool. They carry the acknowledgments "Sponge Guide IV" or "Sponge Guide V"; the rights for their specific use for this guide were yielded by the Marine Conservation Society.
The illustrations were made by:

Graham Ackers
T. Crabtree
P. Dart
F. Dipper
R. Earll
J. David George
David Guiterman
Keith Hiscock
W. Clifford Jones
Christine Morrow
David Moss
Bernard Picton
Roger Sykes
J. Taylor
G. Warner

Further miscellaneous photographers / illustrators:

Lisanne Aerts
Ron Ates
A. Bruce Bowker
G. van Elswijk
Wil van Ginkel
Eduardo Hajdu
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
Koos den Hartog
Margriet Kielman
Willem Kolvoort
Louis van der Laan
Welton Lee
Godfried van Moorsel
Marcel Reichert
Ruud Roozendaal
Molly Ryan
Niels Stentoft
Eleni Voultsiadou-Koukoura
Marlies Wapstra
Ernesto Weil

Copyrights for limited use were obtained for individual photos / illustrations scanned from the following publications (omitting those older than 75 years; full references in "Literature" module)

ABRS Canberra: "Zoological Catalogue of Australia" (Hooper and Wiedenmayer, 1994)

Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam: "Sponges in time and space"(Van Soest et al., eds., 1994; Barthel et al., 1994; Boury-Esnault & Vacelet, 1994)

Bergen University, Norway: Sarsia (Steenstrup and Tendal, 1982; Van Soest and Stone, 1986; Cristobó & Urgorri, 2002)

Biological Society Washington: "Proceedings BSW" (Rützler and Stone, 1986; De Weerdt, et al., 1990; Rützler and Smith, 1992, 1993).

Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel: "Sponges of the Western Bahamas" (Wiedenmayer, 1977)

"Boletim Instituto Español Oceanografia" (Solórzano and Babio, 1979; Uriz, 1981; Cruz and Bacallado, 1981, 1982; Durán and Solórzano, 1982)

Cambridge University Press: "Journal of Zoology, London 232 and 238" (Hajdu, 1994; Carballo et al., 1996) & "Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, vols 79, 81, 87, 89" (Cardenas et al. 2007; Cristobó & Urgorri, 2001; Howson & Chambers, 1999; Picton & Goodwin, 2007; Schönberg & Beuck, 2007; van Soest et al. 2007; van Soest & Beglinger, 2009)

CNRS, Paris: "Biologie des Spongiaires" (Lévi and Boury-Esnault, eds., 1979; Vacelet, 1979), "Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale Générale, Paris, vol. 107" (Borojevic, 1966, 1967)

CSIRO, Australia: "Invertebrate Taxonomy" (Hooper, 1991)

Deptartment of Zoology, Gøteborg University: "Zoologica Scripta" (Sarà et al., 1992)

DSIR publishing, Wellington, N.Z: "New Zealand Journal of Zoology" (Bergquist, 1980)

Dutch Zoological Society: "Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 11" (Buizer and Van Soest, 1977)

ESBCO Publishing, London: "Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society vol. 139" (Klautau & Valentine, 2003).

Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Madrid: "Boletino Real Sociedad Español de Historia Natural (sec. Biol)" (Solórzano et al., 1991)

Freie Universität Berlin: "Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen" (Gruber, 1993)

Fundacion Juan March: "Fund.J.M. Ser. Univ., 164" (Rubio et al., 1981)

Gustav Fischer Verlag: (Weissenfels, 1989)

INCIMAR, Barcelona: "Monografias Zoologicas Marinas" (Uriz, 1989); "Investigaciones Pesquiera" (Arroyo et al., 1976); Scientia Marina (Uriz and Maldonado, 1993)

Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Dakar, Senegal:"Bulletin IFAN" (Lévi, 1952)

Institut d'Océanographie Paris: "Annales de l’Institut Océanographique" (Lévi and Vacelet, 1958; Lévi, 1958-1959).

Istituto di Zoologia, Università de Genova: "Boll. Mus. Ist. Biol. Univ. Genova, 50-51" (Pansini, 1983; Corriero et al., 1996)

Magnolia Press, New Zealand: "Zootaxa vol. 1595" (Heim et al. 2007).

Museo Bocage, Lisbon: "Arquivos del Museo Bocage" (Lopes and Boury-Esnault, 1981; Lopes, 1989)

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria": "Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia nat., 70 and 83" (Sarà, 1958; Pulitzer-Finali and Pronzato, 1980)

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC):" Fauna Marina circalitoral del Sur de la Peninsula Iberica" (Maldonado in Templado, 1993); "Graellsia 50" (Carballo et al., 1994)

Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, Le Havre: "Bulletin trimestrielle de la Societé de Géologie de Normandie et Amis du Muséum du Havre"(Breton et al., 1996)

Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Ville de Genève: "O.Schmidt Sponge Catalogue" (Desqueyroux- Faúndez and Stone, 1992)

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris: "Mémoires MNHN" (Griessinger, 1971; Lévi and Lévi, 1982, 1988; Borojevic et al., 1990; Boury-Esnault et al., 1994)

Naturalis, National Natural History Museum, Leiden: "Zoologische Verhandelingen, 225" (De Weerdt and Van Soest, 1986)

Naturhistorisches Museum Basel: "Schweizerische Paläontologische Abandlungen" (Wiedenmayer, 1994)

NIWA, Wellington, N.Z. : "New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoirs" (Bergquist and Fromont, 1988)

Queen's University, Belfast: "Irish Naturalist’s Journal"(Van Soest and Weinberg, 1980)

Russian Academy of Sciences:"Keys to the fauna of the USSR" (Koltun, 1959, 1966)

Senckenberg Naturforschender Gesellschaft, Frankfurt: "Senckenbergiana Maritima" (Hoeksema, 1983)

Smithsonian Institution Press: "New perspectives in sponge biology" (Rützler, 1990); "Atlas of Sponge Morphology" (cf. De Vos et al., 1992), "Thesaurus of Sponge Morphology" (Boury-Esnault and Rützler, eds., 1997)

Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg: "Silicon and siliceous structures in biological systems" (Hartman, 1981);" Taxonomy of Porifera from the N.E. Atlantic and Mediterranean" (Boury-Esnault, 1987; Borojevic and Boury-Esnault, 1987; Rützler, 1987; Vacelet et al., 1987); "The Cell Biology of Sponges" (Simpson, 1984)

Station Biologique de Roscoff: "Cahiers de Biologie Marine" (Lévi, 1960; Descatoire, 1966; Cabioch, 1968; Carballo and García-Gómez, 1994)

Stazione Zoologica Napoli: "Annuario Istituto di Zoologia del’Università di Napoli" (Sarà and Siribelli, 1960); "Pubblicazione Stazione Zoologica di Napoli" (Pulitzer-Finali and Pronzato, 1976 (1977)

University of Amsterdam: "Contributions to Zoology (Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde), 62 and 64" (Hajdu and Van Soest, 1992; Maldonado, 1992; Van Soest et al., 1994); "Beaufortia 24, 35, 36, 40, 42" (Van Soest, 1976; De Weerdt, 1985, 1986; Van Soest et al., 1990, 1992)

Zoologisches Institut Hamburg: "Zoomorphology" (Sarà and Gaino, 1987)

All these contributions are gratefully acknowledged